Video Bitrates over ATM
The ATM Forum supports various types of video bit - rates:
Headers and trailers added at the CS and SAR sublayers
ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
AAL converts various formats of user data into ATM datastreams and vice versa.The following lists five types of AAL protocols:
As the above figure shows, headers and trailers are added to the original user data at the Convergence Sublayer (CS) and Segmentation And Reassembly (SAR) sublayer. They eventually form the 53 - byte ATM cells with the 5 - byte ATM header appended.
The existence of the five different types of AAL was due largely to history. In particular, all AAL types except AAL 5 were developed by the telecommunications industry and were generally unsuitable for interactive multimedia applications and services.
Table Comparison of AAL types
By now, AAL 5 has superseded AAL 3/4. The ATM Forum agrees that beside CBR services that will use AAL 1, every other service will use AAL 5. For more details of the AALs, see Tanenbaum and Stallings.
MPEG - 2 Convergence to ATM
The ATM Forum has decided that MPEG - 2 will be transported over AAL5. By default, two MPEG - 2 packets (each 188 bytes) from the transport stream (TS) will be mapped into one AAL - 5 service data unit (SDU).
When establishing a virtual channel connection, the following QoS parameters must be specified:
Table Support for digital video transmission
An audio - visual service - specific convergence sublayer (AVSSCS) is also proposed, to enable transmitting video over AAL5 using ABR services.
Multicast over ATM
Compared to IP multicast, which is a "best - effort" service provided on top of UDP, multicast in ATM networks had several challenges:
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Introduction To Multimedia
Multimedia Authoring And Tools
Graphics And Image Data Representations
Colour In Image And Video
Fundamental Concepts In Video
Basics Of Digital Audio
Lossless Compression Algorithm
Lossy Compression Algorithms
Image Compression Standards
Basic Video Compression Techniques
Mpeg Video Coding I – Mpeg 1 And 2
Mpeg Video Coding Ii- Mpeg-4, 7, And Beyon
Basic Audio Compression Techniques
Mpeg Audio Compression
Computer And Multimedia Networks
Multimedia Network Communications And Applications
Content-based Retrieval In Digital Libraries
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