Sharding in MongoDB is the process of storing data records across multiple machines. It is an approach to meet the demands of data growth. As the data size increases, a single machine might not be sufficient for storing the data nor provides an acceptable read and write throughput. Sharding can solve the problem with horizontal scaling. With sharding, you can add more machines for supporting data growth and the demands of read and write operations.
Below diagram shows the sharding in MongoDB using sharded cluster.
In the above diagram, there are 3 main components
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