8086 Microprocessor is provided with two functional units, i.e., EU (Execution Unit) and BIU (Bus Interface Unit).
Execution unit is a functional unit consists of CPU which helps in performing operations and arithmetical calculations instructed by the computer program. In machine language we could say that it decodes and executes instructions. Apart from other internal units it has its own control unit which helps to perform functions along with other basic internal units. The data which is required by the EU is fetched from the BIU thus maintaining interaction with the memory and input and output devices.
Let us now discuss the functional parts of 8086 microprocessors.
As we know ALU handles all arithmetic and logical operations, like +, −, ×, /, OR, AND, NOT operations.
Flag Register is a 16-bit register that looks like a flip-flop, i.e. with the result of data that is stored in the accumulator its status changes. It consists of 9 flags and they are divided into 2 groups − Conditional Flags and Control Flags.
It is determined with the result of the execution by the last arithmetic or logical instruction. Following is the list of conditional flags −
Control flags controls the operations performed by the execution unit. Following is the list of control flags −
There are 8 general purpose registers, i.e., AH, AL, BH, BL, CH, CL, DH, and DL. These registers can be used individually when it is stored in 8-bit data and 16bit data is required to store in pairs. The valid register pairs are AH and AL, BH and BL, CH and CL, and DH and DL. It is referred to the AX, BX, CX, and DX respectively.
It is known as a 16-bit register, which handles the last program address that was recently stored on the stack to the memory location.
To increase the processing speed of the processor 8086 microprocessor has been divided into EU and BIU functional units. As we have mentioned above that the EU codes and decodes the data, BIU interacts with the memory, input and output devices in order to fetch the instructions and data thereby transfer of all data and addresses on the buses for the EU execution. This unit helps in sending addresses, fetching instructions from the memory, reading data from the ports and the memory as well as writing data to the ports and the memory. EU does not have any direct connection with System Buses so this is possible with the BIU. Fetching and execution works simultaneously to increase the performance of the microprocessor.
It has the following functional parts −
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