When urine is formed, it is conveyed from each kidney through the (7) ureters and stored in the (8) urinary bladder until it is expelled from the body through the (9) urethra and (10) urinary meatus. LabelFigure Urinary system. (A) Cross-section of a right kidney showing internal structures and blood vessels. (B) Single nephron with a collecting duct and associated blood vessels. to locate the urinary structures.
Locate the two pencil-like tubes in Figure Urinary system. (A) Cross-section of a right kidney showing internal structures and blood vessels. (B) Single nephron with a collecting duct and associated blood vessels. that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. These structures are the ureters
A ren/al calculus (see Figure Kidney stones shown in the calices and ureter.) is a concretion in the kidney. If the stone blocks the ureter and prevents flow of urine from the kidney, it must be removed. When there is one stone, it is referred to as a calculus, but multiple stones are referred to ascalculi
When stones form in the kidneys, the condition is called nephr/o/lith/iasis. Lith/o/tripsy may be used to crush the stones into small particles so they can be removed or expelled in the urine. Ureter/itis may be caused by infection or by mechanical irritation of a stone.
When ren/al calculi get trapped in the ureter, urine is blocked, causing pressure on the walls of the ureter. This blockage results in an expansion or dilation of the ureter, which is calledureter/ectasis
A hernia is a protrusion of an anatomical structure through the wall that normally contains it. Hernias may develop in several parts of the body. Two examples of hernias are cyst/o/cele and rect/o/cele. (See Figure Herniations. (A) Cystocele. (B) Rectocele)
A cyst/o/cele is herniation of part of the urin/ary bladder through the vagin/al wall caused by weakened pelv/ic muscles. A rect/o/cele is herniation of a portion of the rectum toward the vagina through weakenedvagin/al muscles.
Herniations. (A) Cystocele. (B) Rectocele
cele develops over years as vaginal muscles weaken and can no longer support the weight of urine in the urinary bladder. This condition usually occurs after a woman has delivered several infants. It also occurs in elderly persons because of weakened pelvic muscles resulting from the aging process.
When the physician’s diagnosis is a herniation of the bladder, you know the Dx will be stated as acyst/o/cele
Cyst/o/scopy is a procedure that uses a rigid or flexible cyst/o/ scope inserted through the urethra to examine the urinary bladder. (See Figure Cystoscopy.)
The cyst/o/scope has an optical lighting system, special lenses and mirrors. It also contains a hollow channel for inserting operative devices to obtain biopsy specimens and remove tumors and small stones. A video attachment can be used to create a permanent visual record. (See Figure Cystoscopy)
The urethra differs in men and women. In men, it serves a dual purpose of conveying sperm and discharging urine from the bladder. The female urethra performs only the latter function.
Urethr/al stricture is a narrowing of the lumen (a tubular space within a structure) caused by scar tissue. Urethr/al stricture commonly results when catheters or surgical instruments are inserted into the urethra.
Other causes are untreated gonorrhea and congenital abnormalities. Urethr/ al stricture results in diminished urinary stream and causes UTIs because of urinary flow obstruction.
Benign tumors do not invade surrounding tissue and are contained within a capsule. They become harmful only when they start placing pressure on adjacent structures. For example, a benign tumor of the uterus may place pressure on the urinary bladder and cause frequent urination.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for most office visits by patients experiencing urinary tract problems.
Nephrons are micro/scop/ic filtering units of the kidneys (see Figure Urinary system, structure 6). They are designed to filter urea and other waste products from blood. Nephrons are also responsible for maintaining home/o/stasis (keeping body fluids in balance).
Urine is collected in funnel-shaped extensions called calyces (singular,calyx) and empties into the renal pelvis and through the ureters. Both ureters convey the urine to the bladder for storage until it is expelled through the urethra during the process of urination (micturition). Locate the two structures in Figure Urinary system with a cross-section of the right kidney showing internal structures and blood vessels. to see the path of urine as it is expelled through the ureters.
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