The upper GI tract consists of the oral cavity, esophagus, pharynx, and stomach.
Chemical and mechanical processes of digestion begin in the (1) oral cavity (mouth) when food is chewed to make it easier to swallow.
Chemical and mechanical
The suffix -itisrefers to inflammation. It is used in all body systems to describe an inflammation of a particular organ.
The suffixes-dyniaand -algiarefer to pain.
There are three pairs of salivary glands: the (2) sublingual gland, the (3) submandibular gland,and the (4) parotid gland. The salivary glands, whose primary function is to secrete saliva into the oral cavity, is richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves. Label the salivary glands in Figure The upper GI tract.
During the chewing process, salivary secretions begin the chemical breakdown of food. sial/omeans saliva, salivary glands. From sial/ ic(pertaining to saliva), construct the CF for saliva or salivary gland.
The sufix -rrheais used in words to mean discharge or flow. Sial/ o/ rrhea, more commonly called ptyal/ ism or hyper/ salivation, refers to excessive secretion of saliva. Stomat/ o/ myc/ osisis an abnormal condition of a mouth fungus.
Two types of mycoses are athlete’s foot and thrush. log/omeans study of. Recall -logistmeans specialist in study of. Specialists who treat digestive disorders are the gastr/o/logist, enter/o/logist, and gastr/o/enter/o/logist
A dent/ist specializes in the prevention, Dx, and treatment of disease of the teeth and gums. An orth/odont/istis a dent/al specialist who corrects abnormal position and misalignment of the teeth. Crooked, or misaligned, teeth require dental services of an orth/odont/istto correct the deformity.
Another dent/al specialist, the peri/odont/ist, treats abnormal conditions of tissues surrounding the teeth. Gingiv/itis, a general term for inflammation of gums, is usually caused by accumulation of food particles in crevices between the gums and teeth.
Primary symptoms of gingiv/itis are bleeding gums. This condition can lead to a more serious disorder, peri/odont/itis. Gingiv/itis is best prevented by correct brushing of teeth and proper gum care.
Esophagus, Pharynx, and Stomach
Continue labeling Figure The upper GI tract. as you read the material in this frame. After food is chewed, it is formed into a round, sticky mass called a (5) bolus. The bolus is pushed by the tongue into the (6) pharynx(throat), where it begins its descent down the (7) esophagus to the 8) stomach.
In the stomach, undigested food is mixed with gastric juices to break it down further into a liquid mass called chyme. Esophag/itis can be caused by excessive acid production in the stomach.
An ulcer is a lesion of the skin or muc/ous membrane marked by inflammation, necr/osis, and sloughing of damaged tissue. Various aggravations may produce ulcers, including trauma, drugs, infectious agents such as Helicobacter pylori bacterium, smoking, and alcohol.
An insufficient blood supply may result in necr/osis of the ulcerated tissue.necr/omeans death, necrosis. An abnormal condition of (tissue) death is called necr/osis Peptic ulcers are open sores or lesions on the mucous membrane that lines the stomach or duodenum. They usually develop in the highly acidic regions of the stomach or duodenum. Peptic ulcers that occur in the small intestine are called duoden/al ulcers; peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach are called gastr/ic ulcers.
Gastr/ic ulcers may cause severe pain and inflammation of the stomach. Endo/scopy is a visual examination of a hollow organ or cavity using a rigid or flexible fiber optic tube and lighted optical system.
An endo/scope is used to perform endo/scopy. The organ being examined dictates the name of the endoscop/ ic procedure — for example,visual examination of the esophagus is esophag/ o/ scopy, of the stomach is gastr/ o/ scopy, and of the duodenum is duoden/ o/ scopy.
Endo/scopy is used for bi/opsy, aspirating fluids, and coagulating bleeding areas. A laser can also be passed through the endo/scope for endoscopic surgeries. A camera or video recorder is commonly used during endo/scop/ic procedures to provide a permanent record for later reference. When the physician examines the duodenum, the endoscopic procedure is called duoden/o/scopy.
Gastr/o/scopy is visual examination of the stomach. Upper GI endoscopy, also referred to as EGD, includes visualization of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Surgery is the branch of medicine concerned with diseases and trauma requiring an operative procedure.
Whenever you see a suffix or word with tom in it, relate it to an incision. Partial or total gastr/ectomy is commonly performed to treat stomach cancer. Cancer (CA) is a general term used to indicate various types of malignant neoplasms. Most cancers invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other sites in the body.
The largest group of carcin/omas are solid tumors derived from epithelial tissue that line many organs, including the digestive organs. Emesis is a term that means vomiting; however, it may also be used as a suffix.
Hyper/emesis is characterized by excessive vomiting. Unless treated, it can lead to malnutrition. Hemat/o refers to blood. A patient with acute gastr/itis or a peptic ulcer may vomit blood. Bleeding in the stomach may be due to a gastr/ic ulcer and may cause vomiting of blood. A Dx of vomiting blood is entered in the medical record as hemat/emesis
Dys/pepsialiterally means painful or difficult digestion and is a form of gastric indigestion. It is not a disease in itself but may be symptomatic of other diseases. Swallowing air, usually followed by belching and gastric distention, is a condition known as aer/o/phagia. Infants have a tendency to swallow air as they suck milk from a bottle, a condition charted as aer/o/phagia.
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