Label Figure Structure of a nephron. as you read the following information. The kidney is composed of an outer layer, called the (1) renal cortex, and an inner region, called the (2) renal medulla.
Nephrons, more than 1 million microscopic filtering units in each kidney, are designed to form urine in the process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In addition to numerous other structures, each nephron contains a (3) glomerulus (plural, glomeruli), which is a tiny ball of coiled, intertwined capillaries, and a (4) collecting tubule. The collecting tubule conveys newly formed urine to the renal pelvis where it is excreted by the kidneys.
Nephrons maintain homeostasis in the body by selectively removing waste products from blood by forming urine, which is expelled from the body. The capsule that surrounds and encloses the glomerulus is (5) Bowman capsule.
Structure of a nephron.
To determine urinary tract abnormalities, such as tumors, swollen kidneys, and calculi, the physician may order a radi/o/graph/ic examination called KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder). The radi/o/graph identifies location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
Stones and calcified areas may also be detected. The diagnostic test of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder is recorded in the medical chart with the abbreviationKUB
Intra/ven/ouspyel/o/graphy(IVP) provides multiple radi/o/graph/ic images of the ren/al pelvis and urin/ary tract after injection of a contrast medium. IVP provides detailed information about the structure and function of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. To confirm a Dx of ren/al calculi or other urin/ary disorders, a radi/o/graph involving IV injection of a contrast dye may be ordered. The abbreviation for this type of radiograph isIVP
Pyel/o/nephr/itis is a bacterial infection of the ren/al pelvis and kidney caused by bacterial invasion from the middle and lower urinary tract or bloodstream. Bacteria may gain access to the bladder via the urethra and ascend to the kidney.
Pyel/o/nephr/itis is an extremely dangerous condition, especially in pregnant women, because it can cause premature labor. The medical term for bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and kidneys ispyel/o/nephr/it is
Cyst/o/cele is a hernia in which the bladder bulges through a weakness in the muscular wall of the vagina or rectum. This causes urinary retention in the part of the bladder that pouches into the vagina or rectum.In the female, herniation of the bladder into the vagina may be caused by childbirth or age.
An important diagnostic test that provides early detection of ren/al disease is urinalysis. Urine samples are analyzed for abnormalities, such as blood or pus in urine and other physical and chemical properties.Hemat/uriais a condition of blood in the urine. Form a word meaning pus in the urine.
Hydr/o/nephr/osisis an enlargement of the kidney due to constant pressure from backed-up urine in the ureter. It may be caused by a stricture, tumor, or a stone in the proxim/al part of a ureter that obstructs urine flow. When obstruction occurs in the dist/al part of the ureter, the condition is called hydr/o/ureter with hydr/o/nephr/osis. (See Figure Hydronephrosis.)
Although partial obstruction in hydr/o/nephr/osis may not produce symptoms initially, the built-up pressure behind the area of obstruction eventually results in symptoms of ren/al dysfunction. When calculi obstruction causes cessation of urine flow, it may result in a condition calledhydr/o/nephr/osis
Presence of ren/al calculi increases the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) because they obstruct the free flowof urine. Untreated obstruction of a stone in any of the urin/ary structures can also result in retention of urine and damage to the kidney. (See Figure Hydronephrosis.)
Poly/cyst/ic kidney disease (PKD) is an abnormal condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts. Kidney failure commonly develops over time, requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. Ur/o/logists specialize in treating urin/ary tract disorders; Nephr/o/logists specialize in management of kidney disease, kidney transplantation, and dia/lysis therapies.
Cyst/itis, an inflammatory condition of the urin/ary bladder, is commonly caused by bacterial infection and is characterized by pain, frequency of urination, urgency and, sometimes, hemat/uria. Cyst/itis is more common in women, due to their shorter urethra and the closeness of the urethr/al orifice to the anus. Symptoms of cyst/itis include dys/uria, urgency, and urinary frequency. Urinalysis reveals bacteri/uria, and py/uria.
Glomerul/o/nephr/itis, a form of nephr/itis in which lesions involve primarily the glomeruli, may result in protein/uria and hemat/uria. Any condition that impairs flow of blood to the kidneys, such as shock, injury, or exposure to toxins, may result in acute renal failure (ARF).
Nephr/o/lith/iasis occurs when salts in the urine precipitate (settle out of solution and grow in size). Elimination of the stone(s) may occur spontaneously, but crushing the stone(s) by means of lith/o/tripsy may sometimes be necessary.
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) uses powerful sound wave vibrations to break up calculi in theurin/ary tract or gallbladder. (See Figure Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.) Ultrasound (US) is used to locate and monitor stones as they are being destroyed. Complete removal of stones and their fragments during urination is ensured by administration of an oral dissolution drug.
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.
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