Endocrinology is the branch of medicine concerned with treatment of disorders that affect glands that control metabolism, reproduction, and sexual growth and development. Endocrinologists evaluate the body’s overall metabolic function and diagnose and treat hormone imbalances. They treat such conditions as diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, and osteoporosis and other disorders involving the underproduction or overproduction of hormones, control of overall fluid concentrations, and disorders of blood glucose metabolism.
When surgery is required, the endocrinologist works closely with the surgeon to provide the most beneficial patient care. Endocrinologists also play important roles related to their field of expertise in university academic research and in the pharmaceutical industry.
Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Neurologists are physicians who provide evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions involving the nervous system. The nervous system controls voluntary and involuntary movements as well as some organ and gland functioning. It also controls all the processes of cognition, such as thinking, feeling, and remembering.
The neurologist attempts to detect, diagnose, and treat symptoms and disorders that indicate an impairment of any of these functions. These disorders can include but are not limited to vascular problems that affect the brain, infections or inflammations of the brain or the spinal cord tissue, nervous tissue tumors, degenerative neuromuscular disorders, and traumatic brain or spinal cord injury.
Neurologists use specialized examination procedures, laboratory tests, and brain imaging techniques to diagnose nervous disorders. Pharmacological, surgical, and rehabilitative techniques are used to treat neurological disorders. The branch of surgery involving the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord, is called neurosurgery. The physician who specializes in neurosurgery is a neurosurgeon.
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