The lower GI tract consists of the small and large intestine as well as the anus and rectum.
Small and Large Intestine
The small intestine is a continuation of the GI tract. It is where digestion of food is completed as nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through tiny, fingerlike projections called villi. Any unabsorbed material is passed on to the large intestine to be excreted from the body. There are three parts of the small intestine: the (1) duodenum, the (2) jejunum, and the (3) ileum. Label these parts in Figure The small intestine and colon.
Duoden/ectomy, jejun/ectomy, and ile/ectomyare total or partial excisions of different sections of the small intestine. When the colon is removed because of colon CA, an ile/o/stomyis performed. The patient must wear an ile/o/stomy bag to collect fecal material from the ile/um.
The small intestine and colon.
The medical term stoma refers to an opening shaped like a mouth. For patients who cannot eat by mouth, a jejun/al (pertaining to the jejunum) feeding tube is commonly placed through a jejun/o/tomyincision. In a bleeding duoden/al ulcer, a suture over the bleeding portion can prevent performing duoden/ectomy.
Anastomosis (connection between two vessels, bowel segments, or ducts) is performed to provide a connecton from one structure to another. Gastr/o/enter/o/anastomosis, also called gastr/o/enter/o/stomy, may be performed when there is a malignant or benign gastr/o/duoden/al disease.
Another type of anastomosis, gastr/o/duoden/o/stomy, is a procedure in which the lower part of the stomach is excised, and the remainder is anastomosed to the duodenum. Crohn disease, a chronic inflammation of the ile/um, may affect any part of the intestinal tract. It is distinguished from closely related bowel disorders by its inflammatory pattern; it is also called regional ile/itis.
Crohn disease is distinguished from closely related bowel disorders by its inflammatory pattern. It is also known as regional enter/itis. Continue labeling Figure The small intestine and colon. as you read the following: The large intestine, also called the colon, extends from the ileum of the small intestine to the anus. The colon consists of four segments: (4) ascending colon, (5) transverse colon, (6) descending colon, and (7) sigmoid colon.
Col/o/stomyis the surgical creation of an opening into the colon (through the surface of the abdomen). It may be temporary or permanent and may be performed as treatment for CA or diverticul/itis. Col/o/stomyallows elimination of feces into a bag attached to the skin. (See Figure Colostomy.)
Absorption of water by the colon changes intestin/al contents from afluid to a more solid consistency known as feces or stool. The ascending colon is located superior to the cecum. (See Figure Organs of the digestive system (anterior view).) It curves horizontally at the hepatic flexure and descends at the splenic flexure.
The sigmoid colon is S-shaped and extends from the descending colon into the (8) rectum. The rectum terminates in the lower opening of the gastrointestinal tract, the (9) anus. Label Figure The small intestine and colon. to identify and locate the rectum and anus.
Sigmoid/ectomy, an excision of all or part of the sigmoid colon, is most commonly performed to remove a malignant tumor. A large percentage of lower bowel cancers occur in the sigmoid colon.
Rectum and Anus
Proct/algiarefers to a neur/o/logic/al pain in or around the anus or lower rectum, which is also called rect/algia. Dia- is a prefix that means through, across. Dia/rrhearefers to frequent passage of watery bowel movements.
Stenosis refers to a narrowing or stricture of a passageway or orifice. This condition may result in an obstruction. Stenosis may also be used as a suffix. Endo/scopyis an important tool in establishing or confirming a Dxor detecting a path/o/log/ical condition. A video recorder is commonly used during an endo/scop/ic procedure to guide the endo/scope and document abnormalities.
Sigmoid/o/scopy is used to screen for colon cancer. (See Figure Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. A colonoscopy involves examination of the entire length of the colon; a sigmoidoscopy involves examination of only the lower third of the colon.)The American Cancer Society recommends a first sigmoid/ o/scopy after age 50. It is done sooner if there is a family history (FH) of colon cancer.
Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. A colonoscopy involves examination of the entire length of the colon; a sigmoidoscopy involves examination of only the lower third of the colon.
A sigmoid/o/scope, aflexible fiber optic tube that permits transmission of light to visualize images around curves and corners, is placed through the anus to visualize part of the gastro/intestin/al tract. The sigmoid colon is S-shaped and is the last part of the colon. (See Figure Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. A colonoscopy involves examination of the entire length of the colon; a sigmoidoscopy involves examination of only the lower third of the colon.) Sigmoid/ectomy is most commonly performed for carcin/ oma of the sigmoid colon.
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