The following are additional terms related to the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. Recognizing and learning these terms will help you understand the connection between common signs, symptoms, and diseases and their diagnoses as well as the rationale behind methods of treatment selected for a particular disorder.
Signs, Symptoms, and Diseases
aneurysm: Localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall (See Figure Aneurysms.)
An aneurysm may rupture, causing hemorrhage, or thrombi may form in the dilation and give rise to emboli that may obstruct smaller vessels.
angina pectoris: Mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia; also called angina
Angina usually results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. It can occur while resting or during exercise and is a warning sign of an impending myocardial infarction (MI).
Arrhythmia: Irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat; also called dysrhythmia
Arrhythmias occur when the electrical impulses that stem from the conduction system of the heart do not function properly, causing the heart to deviate from the normal pattern heartbeat. Two common types are of arrhythmia are flutter and fibrillation.
Irregular, random contraction of heart fibers
Fibrillation: Fibrillation commonly occurs in the atria or ventricles of the heart and is usually described by the part that is contracting abnormally, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation. Cardioversion is a medical procedure performed with a defibrillator. It is used to treat life-threatening arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillations, and restore the heart to normal sinus rhythm.
arteriosclerosis. arteri/o: artery scler: hardening, sclera (white of eye) -osis: abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells): Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls; also called hardening of the arteries (See Figure Coronary artery disease. (A) Partial occlusion. (B) Total occlusion.)
Arteriosclerosis results in altered function of tissues and organs
Atherosclerosis ather/o: fatty plaque scler: hardening, sclera (white of eye) -osis: abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells): Most common form of arteriosclerosis, caused by accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls, resulting in partial and, eventually, total occlusion (See Figure Coronary artery disease. (A) Partial occlusion. (B) Total occlusion.)
Atherosclerosis of the internal carotid artery results from a piece of plaque that may travel and block the lumina of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. (See Figure Atherosclerosis of the internal carotid artery. Pieces of plaque break free,travel to the brain, and block blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.)
Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent blood flow
coronary artery disease(CAD): Abnormal condition that affects the heart’s arteries and produces various pathological effects, especially reduced flow of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium
Atherosclerosis of the internal carotid artery. Pieces of plaque break free, travel to the brain, and block blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.
The most common form of CAD is coronary atherosclerosis. It is now the leading cause of death in the Western world. (See Figure Coronary artery disease. (A) Partial occlusion. (B) Total occlusion.)
deep vein thrombosis (DVT): Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most commonly in the iliac and femoral veins
Embolus: Mass of undissolved matter — commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque, or air bubble — that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
Emboli may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Occlusion of vessels from emboli usually results in the development of infarcts.
heart block: Interference with normal conduction of electrical impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
Heart block is usually specified by the location of the block and the type.
Atrioventricular (AV) block in which the atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricles
first-degree: First-degree AV block is recognized on ECG by a prolonged PR interval. (See Figure Conduction pathway of the heart. Anterior view of the interior of the heart. The electrocardiogram tracing is one normal heartbeat.) There is no specific treatment for first-degree AV block, but the condition is monitored because it may precede higher degrees of block.
AV block in which occasional electrical impulses from the SA node fail to be conducted to the ventricles
second-degree:Because of the dropped beats, the QRS complexes are dropped periodically, usually every second, third, or fourth beat. (See Figure Conduction pathway of the heart. Anterior view of the interior of the heart. The electrocardiogram tracing is one normal heartbeat.)
AV block in which electrical impulses from the atria fail to reach the ventricles; also called complete heart block (CHB)
third-degree: In right- or left-bundle branch block, electrical impulses are unable to travel down the right or left bundle of His. (See Figure Conduction pathway of the heart. Anterior view of the interior of the heart. The electrocardiogram tracing is one normal heartbeat.) Treatment for second- or third-degree heart block consists of atropine (a drug used to increase heart rate) or pacemaker insertion.
heart failure (HF): Condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the metabolic requirement of body tissues; formerly called congestive heart failure (CHF)
Heart failure may result from myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. It may also be caused by the dysfunction of organs other than the heart, especially the lungs, kidneys, and liver.
Hypertension: Consistently elevated blood pressure that is higher than 119/79 mm Hg, causing damage to the blood vessels and, ultimately, the heart
Ischemia: Inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruptionof blood flow (See the ischemic area of an occluded coronary artery in Figure Coronary artery disease. (A) Partial occlusion. (B) Total occlusion.)
mitral valve prolapse(MVP): Condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
Murmur: Abnormal sound heard on auscultation, caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart
myocardial infarction (MI) my/o: muscle cardi: heart -al: pertaining toNecrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries; also called heart attack (see Figure Coronary artery disease. (A) Partial occlusion. (B) Total occlusion.).
patentductusarteriosus: Failure of the ductusarteriosus to close after birth, resulting in an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
Raynaud phenomenon:Numbness in fingers or toes due to intermittent constriction of arterioles in the skin
Raynaud phenomenon is typically caused by exposure to cold temperatures or emotional stress. It may also be an indicator of some other, more serious problem.
rheumatic heart disease: Streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, most commonly in children and young adults
stroke: Damage to part of the brain due to interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or, more commonly, blockage of an artery, also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
When brain cells affected by stroke are deprived of oxygen, they cease to function.Movement, vision, and speech may be impaired.
Thrombus thromb: blood clot us:
condition; structure Aggregation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, sometimes occluding the lumen of the vessel; also called blood clot
transient ischemic attack
(TIA)Temporary interference in the blood supply to the brain that causes no permanent brain damage
varicose veins: Swollen superficial veins that are visible through the skin and usually occur in the legs
Varicose veins commonly appear blue, bulging, and twisted. If left untreated, varicose veins can cause aching and feelings of fatigue as well as skin changes.Because the blood pools (collects), there is an increased risk of clot formation (thrombosis). Treatment consists of sclerosing chemicals (sclerotherapy), and surgical interventions such as endovenous laser ablation (ELT) of the greater saphenous veins with microphlebectomies of lesser saphenous veins.(See Figure Healthy and unhealthy veins and valves. (A) Valve function in competent and incompetent valves. (B) Varicose veins.)
Lymphatic System acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS):
Deficiency of cellular immunity induced by infection with the human immuno deficiency virus (HIV), characterized by increasing susceptibility toinfections, malignancies, and neurological diseases
HIV is transmitted from person to person in cell-rich body fluids (notably blood andsemen) through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles (as by intravenousdrug abusers), or other contact with contaminated blood (as in accidental needle sticks among health care workers).
Hodgkin disease: Malignant disease characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue (usually first evident in cervical lymph nodes), splenomegaly, and the presence of unique Reed -Sternberg cells in the lymph nodes
Malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue Kaposi sarcoma is closely associated with AIDS and is commonly fatal because the tumors readily metastasize to various organs.
Lymphadenitis: Inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection
Mononucleosis: Acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and characterized by a sore throat, fever, fatigue, and enlarged lymph nodes
non-Hodgkin lymphoma:Any of a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue except for Hodgkin disease; previously called lymphosarcoma
Cardiovascular System cardiac catheterization (CC):
Insertion of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery, usually of an arm (brachial approach) or leg (femoral approach) to provide evaluation of the heart (See Figure Cardiac catheterization. (A) Catheter insertion in femoral vein or artery. (B) Catheter insertion in brachial or radial artery.)
During CC, the cardiologist may also inject a contrast medium and take x-rays (angiography). Cardiac catheterization is used mainly in diagnosing and evaluating congenital, rheumatic, and coronary artery lesions, including myocardial infarction.
cardiac enzyme studies: Battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage
echocardiography: Use of ultrasound to evaluate the heart and great vessels and diagnose cardiovascular lesions
Cardiac catheterization. (A) Catheter insertion in femoral vein or artery. (B) Catheter insertion in brachial or radial artery.
(ECG)Creation and study of graphic records (electrocardiograms) produced by electric activity generated by the heart muscle; also called cardiographyECG is analyzed by a cardiologist and is valuable in diagnosing cases of abnormal heart rhythm and myocardial damage.
Holter monitor: Monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electrocardiograph readings (usually 24 hours) on a portable tape recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activities
Holter monitoring provides a record of cardiac arrhythmia that would not be discovered by means of an ECG of only a few minutes’ duration. The patient keeps an activity diary to compare daily events with electrocardiograph tracings. (See Figure Holter monitor.)
ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring the amount of oxygen consumption
A stress test may show abnormal ECG tracings that do not appear during an ECG taken when the patient is resting.
ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
In a nuclear stress test, the radioisotope is injected at the height of exercise. The area not receiving sufficient oxygen is visualized by decreased uptake of the isotope.
lood test that measures protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (not skeletal muscle)
The troponin I test is a highly sensitive and specifi c indicator of recent myocardial infarction (MI).
ultrasonography (US): Imaging technique that records high-frequency sound waves bouncing off body tissues and uses a computer to process those waves to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue
Doppler ultrasonography measures blood flow in blood vessels. It allows the examiner to hear characteristic alterations in blood flow caused by vessel obstruction in various parts of an extremity.
Lymphatic Systembone marrow aspirationbiopsy:
Removal of living bone marrow tissue, usually taken from the sternum or iliac crest, for microscopic examination
Bone marrow aspiration biopsy evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape, and size of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelet precursors.
lood test used to screen for an antibody to the AIDS virus
Positive outcome on this test indicates probably virus exposure and is confirmed with the Western blot test, which is more specific.
Radiographic examination of lymph glands and lymphatic vessels after an injection of a contrast medium
Lymphangiography is used to show the path of lymph flow as it moves into the chest region.
tissue typing: Technique used to determine the histocompatibility of tissues used in grafts and transplants with the recipient’s tissues and cells; also known as histocompatibility testing
Medical and Surgical Procedures
Any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow, usually using balloon dilation
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG):
Procedure in which a surgeon removes one or more of a patient’s peripheral veins and then sutures each end of the vein onto the coronary artery to route blood flow around a blockage in a coronary artery, thus increasing blood flow to the heart (See Figure Coronary artery bypass graft.)
Generally, the saphenous vein from the leg or the right or left internal mammary artery from the chest wall are used in CABG.
Coronary artery bypass graft.
Delivery of brief discharges of electricity that pass across the chest to stop a cardiac arrhythmia and restore normal sinus rhythm; also called defibrillation
A defibrillator is the electrical device used for cardioversion.
Device designed to administer a defibrillating electric shock to restore normal sinus rhythm
There are two types of defibrillators: automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators(AICDs) and automatic external defibrillators (AEDs). Surgically implanted defibrillator that automatically detects and corrects potentially fatal arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillations (See Figure Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator)
Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.
automatic implantablecardioverter defibrillator (AICD):
An AICD is implanted, usually in the chest, in a patient who is at high risk for developing a serious arrhythmia. It has leads (wires) that go to the heart, sense its rhythm, and deliver an electrical shock if needed. Portable computerized defibrillator that analyzes the patient’s heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to stimulate a heart in cardiac arrest
automatic externaldefibrillator (AED):
An AED is kept on emergency response vehicles and in public places, such as recreation facilities, and is designed to be used by trained first-responder personnel or laypeople.z
Surgical removal of the lining of an artery
Endarterectomy is performed on almost any major artery that is diseased or blocked, such as the carotid or femoral artery.
Surgical removal of plaque and thromboses from an occluded carotid artery (See Figure Atherosclerosis of the internal carotid artery. Pieces of plaque break free, travel to the brain, and block blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.)
Carotid endarterectomy can reduce the risk of stroke when it is performed on a patient with moderate or severe stenoses of the artery, with or without a history of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).
Chemical injection into a varicose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue, which closes the vein (see Figure Healthy and unhealthy veins and valves. (A) Valve function in competent and incompetent valves. (B) Varicose veins.)
When a vein closes, it can no longer fill with blood. In a few weeks the treated varicose vein fades.
Plastic or restorative surgery on a valve, especially a cardiac valve
A special type of valvuloplasty, called balloon valvuloplasty, involves insertion of a balloon catheter to open a stenotic heart valve. Inflation of the balloon decreases the constriction.
Removal of a lymph vessel
Drugs that reduce cholesterol levels by decreasing levels of low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides, and slightly increasing levels of high-density lipoproteins
Administration of drugs to dissolve a blood clot
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