Accessory Organs of Digestion - Medical Terminology(Adaptive*)

Label Figure The liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum with associated ducts and blood vessels. as you learn about the accessory organs of digestion.

Even though food does not pass through the (1) liver, (2) gallbladder, and (3) pancreas, these organs play a vital role in proper digestion and absorption of nutrients. The gallbladder serves as a storage site for bile, which is produced by the liver. When bile is needed for digestion, the gallbladder releases it through ducts into the (4) duodenum through the (5) commonbile duct.

The liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum with associated ducts and blood vessels.

The liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum with associated ducts and blood vessels.

The three accessory organs of digestion are the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.


Hepat/itis, an inflammatory condition of the liver, may be caused by bacteri/al or viral infection, parasitic infestation, alcohol, drugs, toxins, or transfusion of incompatible blood. It may be mild and brief or severe and life-threatening.

Hepat/itis may be characterized by an enlarged liver. The medical term for enlarged liver ishepat/o/megaly

Hepat/o/megaly may be a symptom of a rare malignant tumor of the liver called hepat/oma. The tumor occurs most commonly in association with hepat/itis or liver cirrh/osis.The Dx of a liver tumor is charted hepat/oma.

Identify and label the following structures in Figure The liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum with associated ducts and blood vessels. as you read about the accessory organs of digestion. Bile is released from the gallbladder and also drained directly from the liver through the (6) right hepatic duct and the (7) left hepatic duct. These two ducts eventually form the (8) hepatic duct. The (9) cystic duct merges with the hepatic duct to form the common bile duct and the (10) pancreatic duct. These ducts carry their digestive juices into the duodenum.


chol/emeans bile, gall. Chol/emesis means vomiting bile.

Bile, also called gall, is a yellow-green bitter secretion produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It receives its color from the presence of bile pigments such as bilirubin. Bile passes from the gallbladder through the common bile duct into the small intestine. Bile emulsifies (breaks down) fats and prepares them for further digestion and absorption in the small intestine.

Cholecyst/itisis an inflammation of the gallbladder

When a patient vomits bile, the condition is called chol/emesis. Analyze chol/emesis by defining the elements.

Chol/e/lithsare gallstones. Unless they obstruct a biliary duct, the stones may or may not cause symptoms. Exact causes of gallstones are unknown; however, they occur more commonly in women, elderly people, and obese persons. Figure Cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. illustrates sites of gallstones.

Cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis

Cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis.

The most common type of gallstone contains cholesterol. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder or bile ducts. Calculi may cause jaund/ice, RUQ pain, obstruction, and inflammation of the gallbladder.

A bil/i/ary duct, also called a bile duct, may become inflamed from a chol/e/lith. The CF cholangi/o refers to a bile vessel. The Dx of cholang/itisis determined by ultrasound evaluation and cholangi/o/graphy. The radiographic procedure in this frame for outlining the major bile vessel is cholangi/o/graphy

When a stone is trapped in the common bile duct, the duct may require an incision to remove the stone. Once the stone is removed, the duct is sutured. Locate the gallbladder, also known as cholecyst, in Figure The liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum with associated ducts and blood vessels. This pouch like structure is used to store bile, which is produced by the liver.

The pancreat/ic duct transports pancreatic juices to the duodenum to help the digestive process. The suffixes -osis and -ias is are used to indicate an abnormal or diseased condition. The difference between the two is that -osis is used to denote a disorder but does not indicate the specific cause of the abnormality. In contrast, -iasisis attached to a word root to identify an abnormal condition produced by something that is specified.

Cholecyst/itisis an inflammation of the gallbladder, usually caused by obstruction of gallstones in the bil/i/ary ducts. The disease is marked by colicky pain in the RUQ of the abdomen. Usually, pain develops shortly after a meal and radiates to the shoulder and back.

Chol/e/cyst/ectomy is performed by lapar/o/scop/ic or open surgery. If bile ducts are obstructed, a classic “gallbladder attack,” more properly referred to as bili/ary colic, results in pain in the RUQ. Nausea and vomiting may accompany the attack.


Because of its critical function of producing insulin and digestive enzymes, a complete excision of the pancreas is not usually performed. When excision of the pancreas is indicated, the surgeon performs apancreat/ectomy

Pancreat/ic CA is an extremely lethal disease. Surgery is performed for relief, but it is not a cure for the CA. When part or all of the pancreas is removed, the surgeon performs a pancreat/ectomy Because the gallbladder performs no function except storage, it is not essential for life. When the gallbladder is excised, the surgical procedure is called cholecyst/ectomy

Plastic surgery is the specialty for restoration, repair, or reconstruction of body structures. Dia/rrhea is an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid fecal matter from the intestine. Continuous passage of loose, watery stools most likely would be diagnosed asdia/rrhea

A therm/o/meter is an instrument for measuring degrees of heat or cold. Normal temperature taken orally ranges from about 97.6º F to 99.6º F. Infection, malignancy, severe trauma, and drugs may cause fever.However, other conditions may also cause an elevated temperature.

Poison is any substance taken into the body by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption that interferes with normal physiological function. Virtually any substance can be poisonous if consumed in sufficient quantity. The term poison usually implies an excessive degree of a tox/ic dosage, rather than a specific group of substances. Aspirin is not usually thought of as a poison, but overdoses of this drug can result in the accidental death of a child.

Substances that impair health or destroy life when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the body in relatively small amounts are considered tox/ic substances. Identifying the tox/ic substance is critical to expeditious treatment.

Ultra/son/o/graphy(US) is the process of imaging deep structures of the body by recording reflection of high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) and displaying the reflected echoes on a monitor. US is also called ultrasound and echo.

Hepat/o/megaly may be caused by hepat/itis or another condition, such as fatty infiltration caused by alcoholism; bil/i/ary obstruction; or malignancy.

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Medical Terminology(Adaptive*) Topics