TCP/IP Standards, Numbers, and Practical Considerations - Linux

As discussed , the bodies responsible for the standards that govern the Internet are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). These bodies are part of the Internet Society (ISOC) The Internet standards are published as Request for Comments (RFCs). Many Web sites provide databases of RFCs; one of the best at the time of writing is Throughout this book are tables of values for stuffing in various function arguments and structure fields. There are tables in each chapter for some of these values, and many of the values are actually officially assigned numbers. In some places, the lists of numbers might not be entirely complete because of new protocols that are registered from time to time. Much of what makes the Internet function is based on these agreed-upon numbers. The numbers include the protocol fields in the link layer or Ethernet header, the protocol numbers in the IP header, wellknown transport layer port numbers, and many others. Figures illustrate the link layer headers, and Table shows the protocol fields for the IPv4 Ethernet MAC header. These number assignments at one time were specified by RFCs that were re-issued from time to time as new protocols were defined. The last of these RFCs that defined protocol numbers was RFC 1700. Now, as of RFC 3232 in early 2002, the responsibility of maintaining assigned numbers was removed from the RFC editor. The assigned numbers are now maintained in a database by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA)

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