Java Encapsulation - Java

What is Java Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is one of the 4 essential OOP concepts. The alternative three are inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction.

Encapsulation in Java is a mechanism of wrapping the facts (variables) and code performing at the records (techniques) collectively as a single unit. In encapsulation, the variables of a category will be hidden from different classes, and can be accessed only via the methods of their current class. Therefore, it's also referred to as statistics data hiding.

To gain encapsulation in Java −

  • Declare the variables of a class as private.
  • Offer public setter and getter methods to alter and consider the variables values.


Following is an instance that demonstrates a way to achieve Encapsulation in Java –

The public setXXX() and getXXX() methods are the access points of the instance variables of the EncapTest class. Normally, these methods are referred as getters and setters. Therefore, any class that wants to access the variables should access them through these getters and setters.

The variables of the EncapTest class can be accessed using the following program –

This will produce the following result −


Benefits of Encapsulation

  • The fields of a class can be made read-only or write-only.
  • A class can have total control over what is stored in its fields.
  • The users of a class do not know how the class stores its data. A class can change the data type of a field and users of the class do not need to change any of their code.

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