Reference Model is acceptable everywhere as a means of standardization as the computer network is located over a wide physical range and has heterogeneous architecture.
OSI and TCP/IP reference model are the two types of reference models. Even though OSI model is a hypothetical one, TCP/IP is a practical model.
International Organization of Standardization (ISO) developed ISO model and is acronym of Open System Interface. Hence it is also referred as ISO-OSI model.
Below diagram shows the OSI model. It has seven layers each having a specific function.
This layer is responsible for the activities below:
This layer does the following functions:
Below are the functions of Network Layer:
Following are the functions performed by Transport layer-
This layer performs the below functions-
The Presentation layer does below functions:
The Application layer does below functions:
TCP/IP is the acronym of Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol and is a practical model used in the internet.
This layer is the combination of Physical and Data Link layer i.e. Host-to-Network layer. Below diagram shows the different types of TCP/IP model-
Similar to OSI model and below are its functions.
Similar to OSI model and below are the key points-
In this layer, host is allowed to insert packets into network and they are travelled independently to the destination. Though the packets are sent in an order, at the receiving end, the order is not guaranteed.
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