Internet Connectivity - Internet Technologies

What is Internet Connectivity?

We will learn on how to connect to internet i.e. internet service providers, software and hardware requirements, configuring internet connection etc.

Internet Service Providers (ISP)

ISP is a company providing internet access. Below are the services they offer.

  • Internet Access
  • Domain name registration
  • Dial-up access
  • Leased line access

ISP Types

Below is the diagram where the ISPs are classified into six categories.

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ACCESS PROVIDERS

Using telephone lines, cable wi-fi or fiber optics, the internet access is provided.

MAILBOX PROVIDER

These providers provide mailbox hosting services.

HOSTING ISPS

They provide e-mail and other web hosting services such as clouds, virtual machines etc.

VIRTUAL ISPS

These ISPs provide internet access using other ISP services.

FREE ISPS

These ISPs don’t charge for providing internet services.

Connection Types

One can connect to the internet using the below connection types.

  • Dial-up Connection
  • ISDN
  • DSL
  • Cable TV Internet connections
  • Satellite Internet connections
  • Wireless Internet Connections

Dial-up Connection

Telephone line is used to connect the computer to the internet. It needs only a modem which works as an interface between computer and the telephone line to the setup.

Modem can be instructed to make a call to a particular number provided by an ISP.

Below protocols are used by Dial-up connection.

  • Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
  • Point to Point Protocol (PPP)

Below diagram depicts the modem accessing internet.

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ISDN

ISDN creates the connection using the phone lines that carry digital signals and not the analog signals.

There are two techniques to deliver ISDN services:

  • Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
  • Primary Rate Interface (PRI)

Key points:

The BRI ISDN consists of three distinct channels on a single ISDN line: t1o 64kbps B (Bearer) channel and one 16kbps D (Delta or Data) channels.

The PRI ISDN has 23 B channels and one D channels with both having operating capacity of 64kbps individually making a total transmission rate of about 1.54Mbps.

Below diagram depicts the internet access using ISDN connection.

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DSL

It stands for Digital Subscriber Line. It provides connection over ordinary telephone lines.

Below are the various versions of DSL techniques.

  • Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)
  • Symmetric DSL (SDSL)
  • High bit-rate DSL (HDSL)
  • Rate adaptive DSL (RDSL)
  • Very high bit-rate DSL (VDSL)
  • ISDN DSL (IDSL)

Above mentioned technologies varies in their upload and download speed, bit transfer rate and level of service.

Below diagram depicts the way we connect to internet with DSL technology.

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Cable TV Internet Connection

Using Cable TV Lines, the internet connection is provided. Data is transferred at high speeds than common telephone line using coaxial line.

Key Points:

  • Cable operator provides the cable modem used in accessing the service.
  • Cable modem contains two connections: one for Cable TV signals and other for internet service.
  • As the bandwidth is used by a set of customers, the data transfer rate also varies on the internet usage of customers.

Below diagram depicts how cable TV connection accesses the internet.

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Satellite Internet Connection

  • It provides with high speed internet access. This has two types: one way connection or two way connection.
  • In one way connection, we can only download data but for uploading, we need a dialup access through ISP over telephone line.
  • In two way connection, using satellite we can download and upload the data which doesn’t require any dialup connection.

Below diagram depicts how the internet is accessing via satellite internet connection.

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Wireless Internet Connection

Radio frequency bands are used to connect to internet and high speeds are achieved using Wireless Internet Connection. It is created by either Bluetooth or WiFi.

Key Points:

  • Electronic devices connect to the internet with Wi Fi wireless technology which is based on IEEE 802.11 standards.
  • Bluetooth wireless technology uses short-wavelength radio waves and creates personal area network (PAN).

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