HTML - Internet Technologies

What are Internet Programming Languages - HTML?

HTML is full form of Hyper Text Markup Language. It is defined for the appearance and contents of a web page. Text, graphics, audio and video can be organized.

Key Points:

  • The word Hypertext is referred to the text that acts as a link.
  • Markup word defines the structure of the text. Browsers are notified with the markup symbols on how to display the text and are called as tags.
  • HTML was created by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN.
  • HTML Versions

Below table depicts the various versions of HTML:

Version Year
HTML 1.0 1991
HTML 2.0 1995
HTML 3.2 1997
HTML 4.0 1999
XHTML 2000
HTML5 2012

HTML Tags

Tag refers to the command that tells the web browser on how to show the text, audio, graphics or video on a web page.

Key Points:

  • Tags are identified with pair of angle brackets.
  • Tags start with a less than (<) character and end with a greater than (>) character.
  • The tag name is mentioned in between the angle brackets.
  • Tags come in pair: the start tag and the closing tag.
  • The start tag is simply the tag name is enclosed in angle bracket while the closing tag is specified including a forward slash (/).
  • Tags can be empty i.e. they don’t have the closing tag.
  • They are not case sensitive.
  • The starting and closing tag name must and should be the same. For example <b> hi </i> is invalid as both tags are different.
  • If the angle brackets are not specified, then the browser considers it as a simple text.
  • The tag may contain attributes to provide additional information about the tag to the browser.

Basic tags

Below table depicts the Basic HTML tags that define the basic web page:

Tag Description
<html> </html> Specifies the document as a web page.
<head> </head> Specifies the descriptive information about the web documents.
<title> </title> Specifies the title of the web page.
<body> </body> Specifies the body of a web document.

Below code displays how to use basic tags.

Formatting Tags

Below table depicts the HTML tags for text formatting:

Tag Description
<b> </b> Specifies the text as bold. Eg.this is bold text
<em> </em> It is a phrase text. It specifies the emphasized text. Eg.Emphasized text
<strong> </strong> It is a phrase tag. It specifies an important text. Eg.this is strong text
<i> </i> The content of italic tag is displayed in italic. Eg.Italic text
<sub> </sub> Specifies the subscripted text. Eg. X1
<sup> </sup> Defines the superscripted text. Eg. X2
<ins> </ins> Specifies the inserted text. Eg. The price of pen is now2015.
<del> </del> Specifies the deleted text. Eg. The price of pen is now2015.
<mark> </mark> Specifies the marked text. Eg. It israining

Table Tags

Below table shows the commonly used table tags:

Tag Description
<table> </table> Specifies a table.
<tr> </tr> Specifies a row in the table.
<th> </th> Specifies header cell in the table.
<td> </td> Specifies the data in an cell of the table.
<caption> </caption> Specifies the table caption.
<colgroup> </colgroup> Specifies a group of columns in a table for formatting.

List tags

Below table displays the generally used list tags:

Tag Description
<ul> </ul> Specifies an unordered list.
<ol> </ol> Specifies an ordered list.
<li> </li> Specifies a list item.
<dl> </dl> Specifies a description list.
<dt> </dt> Specifies the term in a description list.
<dd> </dd> Specifies description of term in a description list.

Frames

A browser’s window can be divided into multiple rectangular regions. Each region consists independent html web page.

A set of frames in the entire browser is known as frameset. It tells the browser how to divide browser window into frames and the web pages that each has to load.

Below table shows the various tags used for frames creation:

Tag Description
<frameset> </frameset> It is replacement of the <body> tag. It doesn’t contain the tags that are normally used in <body> element; instead it contains the <frame> element used to add each frame.
<frame> </frame> Specifies the content of different frames in a web page.
<base> </base> It is used to set the default target frame in any page that contains links whose contents are displayed in another frame.

Forms

Data can be input to a web page using Forms. The data is sent to the web server for further processing. Text fields, check boxes, buttons, lists etc. are used to input data to a form.

Below table shows the generally used tags while creating a form:

Tag Description
<form> </form> It is used to create HTML form.
<input> </input> Specifies the input field.
<textarea> </textarea> Specifies a text area control that allows to enter multi-line text.
<label> </label> Specifies the label for an input element.

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