Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Interview Questions & Answers

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Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Interview Questions & Answers

If you are an expert in networking, then a specialization in Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) can help you improve your scope for job search in this field. With the rapid growth in the usage of smart phones, the usage of internet is also exceeding its availability. To cope with that, the next generation of IP, which is the IPv6 has been introduced to accommodate higher number of addresses, while also providing additional security to the devices. To have a planned career and get more from your future job, upgrade yourself with the knowledge of IPv6. Wisdomjobs gives you the details of basics of IPv6 and also provides you information of various courses and training centers that can make you ready for the IPv6 job. Read the IPv6 job interview questions and answers to help you easily pass the interview process.

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Interview Questions

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Interview Questions
    1. Question 1. What Is Ipv6?

      Answer :

      IPv6 is the new version of the Internet address protocol that has been developed to supplement (and eventually replace) IPv4, the version that underpins the Internet today.

    2. Question 2. Who Created Ipv6 And How Long Has Ipv6 Been Available? Is It New?

      Answer :

      The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), an international group concerned with developing technical standards that make the Internet work better first published the basic IPv6 protocol in 1998. It has since seen a number of enhancements, such as the addition of mobile IPv6 specifications (in 2004).

    3. Question 3. How Does Ipv6 Solve The Problem Of Ipv4 Address Exhaustion?

      Answer :

      Simply by having a lot more address space to uniquely identify devices that are connected to the Internet. IPv4 has a theoretical maximum of about 4 billion addresses whereas IPv6 has an unthinkable theoretical maximum: about 340 trillion, trillion, trillion addresses. In actual use, IPv6 addresses are structured for routing and other purposes and as a result the number of addresses available is effectively less, but still extremely large.

      For the end user, the large amount of IPv6 address space means:

      Home users will generally be given blocks of addresses sufficient to number multiple networks and thousands of devices. (In contrast, under IPv4, home users today typically get a single address.)

      Enterprises and small businesses will generally be given enough to number a substantial number of networks and tens of thousands of devices; while larger sites will get significantly more.

    4. Question 4. What’s The Difference Between Ipv4 And Ipv6? Will Users Be Able To Tell The Difference?

      Answer :

      The key difference between the versions of the protocol is that IPv6 has significantly more address space. Users should not be aware of any difference.

      The addresses do look different however. A typical IPv6 address has 8 groups of four letters and numbers separated by colons so it looks like this: 2001:db8:1f70:999:de8:7648:6e8|

      The expanded addressing capacity of IPv6 will enable the trillions of new Internet addresses needed to support connectivity for a huge range of smart devices such as phones, household appliances and vehicles.

      IPv6 also brings enhanced quality of service that is required for several new applications such as IP telephony, video/audio, interactive games or ecommerce.

    5. Question 5. Are There Other Advantages To Ipv6 Besides Increased Address Space?

      Answer :

      The main advantage of IPv6 is that it provides much more address space. Being a more recent protocol, IPv6 does have a few design improvements over IPv4, particularly in the areas of autoconfiguration, mobility, and extensibility. However, increased address space is the main benefit of IPv6.

    6. Question 6. So Why Has It Taken So Long For Ipv6 To Be Implemented?

      Answer :

      The imminent need to migrate systems to the IPv6 protocol does not exist the way we saw with Y2K. As a result, enterprises have frequently decided to postpone investment in the transition. One of the reasons is that IPv6 deployment is a necessary upgrade procedure that requires the investment of human and capital resources, but does not offer clear short-term return. There are also workarounds, such as the introduction of Network Address Translation (NAT) that allows organisations to extend their addresses to more devices.  These workarounds are costly and not viable in the long-term. The only way forward is to adopt IPv6. The time to adopt is now - and many organizations have already initiated, and even completed the transition process.

    7. Question 7. Has Ipv6 Been Added To The Root Servers Yet?

      Answer :

      On 4 February 2008, ICANN announced that it had added IPv6 to six of the 13 root servers, namely A, F, H, J, K, M, thus allowing for a fuller IPv6 usage of the Domain Name System (DNS). Since then, the L root has also been added to the list.

    8. Question 8. Will Ipv6 Addresses Run Out Eventually?

      Answer :

      No. An enormous amount of IP address space exists under IPv6. IPv6, in fact, was specifically designed to fix the address limitations of IPv4. This addressing capacity will enable the trillions of new Internet addresses needed to support connectivity for a huge range of smart devices such as phones, household appliances and vehicles.

    9. Question 9. Is There A Specific Date When Everything Needs To Be Upgraded To Ipv6?

      Answer :

      No. There is no specific date when everything must be upgraded to IPv6 (although some organisations, including governments, have already identified target dates for their own IPv6 implementation. IPv6 and its transition mechanisms have been designed for a long period of co-existence with IPv4 and it is expected that IPv4-only systems and applications will survive for many years. However, IPv6-only systems are expected to arise and many of these users are likely to be in emerging business markets and developing countries.

      Implementing IPv6 requires planning and with IPv4 address pool exhaustion expected around 2010-2011, planning needs to start now. Network operators and administrators should already be incorporating IPv6 into their network upgrade and procurement plans.

    10. Question 10. I Have Enough Addresses Today. Why Should I Bother Implementing Ipv6?

      Answer :

      IPv6 is an important part of ensuring continued growth and accessibility of your services to the rest of the Internet and emerging markets in particular. As the Internet progressively becomes a dual IPv4/IPv6 network, ensuring that you are IPv6 enabled will be critical for retaining universal Internet connectivity for your clients, users, and subscribers, business partners and suppliers. Indeed, as the difficulty and cost of obtaining IPv4 address space increases, it is inevitable that some sites will only support IPv6. Connectivity with such sites (and customers) will require IPv6.

      It is also worth considering what services and devices may need to be supported over the next few years as the remaining IPv4 pool become depleted. Your existing address allocations may be insufficient to support a sudden increase in the number of connected devices per person (as many organisations experienced with the rapid deployment of IP-enabled wireless handheld products and similar devices a few years ago).

    11. Question 11. How Much Will The Transition To Ipv6 Cost?

      Answer :

      Since network needs and businesses differ, IPv6 transition strategies and related costs will also vary between organisations. Hardware and software vendors are increasingly integrating IPv6 as a standard feature in products, allowing organisations to deploy IPv6 as part of routine upgrade cycles. For many organisations, operational costs, including staff training, and one-time administrative costs to add IPv6 to management databases and documentation, are likely to constitute the majority of the cost of upgrading to IPv6. Organisations that run in-house customised software will experience additional costs to upgrade these programs to IPv6, and enterprises that have test/release processes will see a marginal additional cost for the IPv6 configuration tests.

      For end-users, operating systems such as Mac OS X, Windows, and Linux now incorporate IPv6 within their latest releases and will automatically use IPv6 if it is available. Applications are expected to follow as the global demand for IPv6 increases.

    12. Question 12. I Run An Isp With A Block Of Ipv4 Address Space. Can I Just Convert That Into Ipv6 Space?

      Answer :

      You will need to obtain new IPv6 addresses in addition to your existing IPv4 address blocks. IPv4 address space that you have today can still be used in a dual IPv4-IPv6 environment. The RIRs all have policies that make it straightforward for an ISP with IPv4 space to apply for and receive IPv6 address space. You should contact the RIR for your region or your ISP for more information on how to acquire IPv6 addresses.

      It may also be good idea to use this opportunity to redesign your addressing plan, taking advantage of the greater flexibility of IPv6 to assign subscriber address blocks more optimally. Similarly, customer sites may use IPv6 as an opportunity to redesign and optimise their internal addressing plan. However, it may be possible to re-use an existing subnet addressing plan within the new IPv6 block, if that is preferred.

    13. Question 13. How Will Ipv6 Day Impact Internet Users?

      Answer :

      Our goal with IPv6 Day is to ensure that the Internet continues to operate smoothly, allowing users to continue to access Web content and services quickly and easily. However, as IPv6 Day will be the first time the next-generation Internet protocol is used at a global scale, we anticipate there will be some hiccups.

      The impact will vary depending on the exact hardware, Internet service and Web services an individual is trying to use. In some rare cases, users may have broken IPv6 connectivity and thus may not be able to access services on IPv6 Day. This is often due to misconfigured or misbehaving equipment (e.g., home routers) or software (e.g., firewalls). This problem currently impacts approximately one Internet user in every 2,000. Operating system vendors, home router vendors, and ISPs are working together to substantially reduce the number of affected users before World IPv6 Day.

    14. Question 14. Without Nat, Won't My Network Be Less Secure?

      Answer :

      Translating addresses does not provide any security benefits. In many cases NATs require an outgoing connection to be present before they will allow an incoming connection to succeed. This 'stateful packet filtering' can be enabled for IPv6 in the absence of any address translation. The security properties of IPv6 are no different than those of IPv4.

    15. Question 15. What, Specifically, Still Needs To Happen For The Industry To Effectively Transition To Ipv6?

      Answer :

      The transition to IPv6 will require collaboration across the Internet industry:

      Internet service providers, Web companies, hardware vendors and operating system vendors. All major industry players need to take action to ensure products and services are ready for the transition. For example, Internet service providers need to make IPv6 connectivity available to their users, Web companies need to offer their sites and applications over IPv6, operating system vendors may need to implement specific software updates, backbone providers may need to establish IPv6 peering with each other, and hardware and home gateway gateway manufacturers may need to update firmware.

    16. Question 16. I've Been Using Nat On My Home Network For Years And It Doesn't Give Me Any Problems. What's Different This Time?

      Answer :

      The big difference is that sharing is now across multiple subscribers, as opposed to across multiple devices belonging to a single subscriber. This has implications for advertisers, content providers, law enforcement and end-users themselves. NAT in residential cable modems and the like is often configurable by the subscriber. Service-provider NAT will offer less possibility for end-user configuration. This means the subscriber's ability to enable incoming connections for applications like VoIP or gaming may be curtailed.

    17. Question 17. How Long Do You Think We Will Have The Ipv4 And Ipv6 Protocols Active At The Same Time?

      Answer :

      No one will put a date on when IPv4 will be turned off. This will depend on market forces. When IPv6 becomes the dominant network it will draw more people in and less people will worry about IPv4. There will always be backwards compatibility for things like older network printers that cannot transition to IPv6.

    18. Question 18. Isn’t Address Sharing The Answer? We Introduced Nat Last Time Addresses Were Becoming Scarce.

      Answer :

      Over the long term, deploying IPv6 is what we need to do. In the short term however, maintaining growth of IPv4 services will require address sharing which can only be considered a temporary fix.

      The sharing will be implemented at the service provider level in the form of large scale NATs. This means that users will find that they are sharing their IP address with a few hundred of their network neighbours at the same time. This will result in reduced performance and capabilities for end users, and higher costs and management complexity for service providers.

    19. Question 19. Will Ipv4 Address Depletion Mean That Services Will Get Switched Off?

      Answer :

      No. Both IPv4 and IPv6 will run in parallel until there is no longer any need to do so.

    20. Question 20. What Is The Full Ipv6 Address Represented By Ff02::130f:5?

      Answer :

      FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:130F:0005

    21. Question 21. What Is The Length Of Ipv6 Ip Address?

      Answer :

      The lenth of IPV6 ip address is 128 bits.

    22. Question 22. What Is The Length Of Header Of Ipv4 And Ipv6?

      Answer :

      • IPV6 is of fixed 40byte header.
      • IPV4 it is variable(normally 20 bytes).

    23. Question 23. What Is The Ethertype Of Ipv4 And Ipv6 Ip Packets?

      Answer :

      • ethertype of ipv4  is 0800.
      • ethertype of ipv6  is 86DD.

    24. Question 24. What Is The Solicted-node Address Of Fe80::2aa:ff:fe28:9c5a?

      Answer :

      FF02::1:FF00:0/104 is the prefix and 24 bits of ipv6 is appended at the end.Hence FF02::1:FF28:9C5A is the solicted node address

    25. Question 25. What Are The Scope Field Names.

      Answer :

      • NODE-LOCAL SCOPE(1).
      • LINK-LOCAL SCOPE(2).
      • SITE-LOCAL SCOPE(5).
      • ORGANIZATION-LOCAL SCOPE(8).
      • GLOBAL-SCOPE(e).

    26. Question 26. What Is The Format Of Ipv6 Header:

      Answer :

      • Version(4)
      • Traffic Class(8)
      • Flow Label(20)
      • Payload Length(16)
      • Next Header(8)
      • Hop Limit(8)
      • Source Address(128)
      • Destination Address(128)

    27. Question 27. What Is Jumbo Payload?

      Answer :

      Payload Length field is 16 bits.But if the payload size is more than 64k, then there is a problem in writing the value of payload length in this field. Under such circustances, ZERO will be written in the payload length field and the details of payload length will be written in HOP BY HOP OPTIONS EXTENSION HEADER.

      By the way, if the payload size is greater than 64k, it is called as JUMBOGRAM.

    28. Question 28. What Is The Value Of Next Header Field For?

      Answer :

      1. TCP (6)
      2. UDP(17)
      3. No Next Header(59)
      4. Routing Header(43)
      5. Fragment Header(44)
      6. Hop by Hop Options Header(0)
      7. Resource ReSerVation Protocol(46)
      8. Encapsulating Security Payload(50)
      9. Authenticaion Header(51)
      10. ICMPv6(58)
      11. Destination Options Header(60)
      12. Encapsulated IPv6 Header(41)

    29. Question 29. What Is The Difference Between Stateless Address Configuration And Stateful Address Configuration?

      Answer :

      If a host configures its ip address by contacting DHCP, it is called as STATEFUL ADDRESS CONFIGURATION.

      If a host configures its ip address without DHCP, it is STATELESS ADDRESS CONFIGURATION. Normally the address is derived from the prefixes advertised by Local Routers.

      Even in the absense of Routers also, hosts can automatically configure themselves (called link-local address).

    30. Question 30. What Is Anycast Address?

      Answer :

      An anycast address is a single address assigned to multiple nodes. 

      A packet sent to an anycast address is then delivered to the first available node.  It is for  load-balancing and automatic failover.

      Several of the DNS root servers use a router-based anycast implementation, which is really a shared unicast addressing scheme. (While there are only thirteen authoritative root server names, the total number of actual servers is considerably larger, and they are spread all over the globe.) The same IP address is assigned to multiple interfaces, and then multiple routing tables entries are needed to move everything along.

      IPv6 anycast addresses contain fields that identify them as anycast, so all you need to do is configure your network interfaces appropriately. The IPv6 protocol itself takes care of getting the packets to their final destinations.

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