IPv4 TCP/IP Model - Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)

What is IPv4 TCP/IP Model?

Most of the internet makes use of a protocol suite called the Internet Protocol Suite also known as the TCP/IP protocol suite. This suite is a combination of protocols which includes a number of different protocols for different purpose and need. As the two major protocols in these suites are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol), this is normally termed as TCP/IP Protocol suite. This protocol suite will have its own reference model which it follows over the internet. When compared to the OSI model, this model of protocols consists of fewer layers.

tcpip_layers

Figure: Comparative depiction of OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models

This model is not same as the actual hardware implementation, i.e. the physical layer of OSI Model. Thus, this model can be implemented on almost all underlying technologies. Transport and Internet layers communicate to the same peer layers. All three top layers of OSI Model are packed together in single Application layer of TCP/IP Model.

Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)

Internet Protocol is one of the major protocols in the TCP/IP protocols suite. This protocol works at the network layer of the OSI model and at the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model. So, this protocol will have the responsibility to identify the hosts depending on their logical addresses and to route data between them over the underlying network.

IP offers a mechanism for uniquely identifying hosts by an IP addressing scheme. IP makes use of best effort delivery, i.e. it does not assure that packets would be delivered to the destined host, but it will do its best to reach the destination. Internet Protocol version 4 uses 32-bit logical address.

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