Collective bargaining is process of joint decision making and basically represents a democratic way of life in industry. It is the process of negotiation between firm’s and workers’ representatives for the purpose of establishing mutually agreeable conditions of employment.It is a technique adopted by two parties to reach an understanding acceptable to both through the process of discussion and negotiation.
ILO has defined collective bargaining as, negotiation about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer and a group of employees or one or more employee, organization with a view to reaching an agreement wherein the terms serve as a code of defining the rights and obligations of each party in their employment with one another.
Collective bargaining involves discussions and negotiations between two groups as to the terms and conditions of employment. It is called ‘collective’ because both the employer and the employee act as a group rather than as individuals. It is known as ‘bargaining’ because the method of reaching an agreement involves proposals and counter proposals,offers and counter offers and other negotiations.
Thus collective bargaining:
Features of Collective Bargaining
There are several essential features of collective bargaining, all of which cannot be reflected in a single definition or description of the process:
Subjective matter of collective bargaining
The subject matter of collective bargaining covers a variety of issues affecting employment relationships between the workers and the management. According to Ghosh and Nath the issues covered in the collective bargaining are recognition of union or unions, wages and allowances, hours of work, leave and festival holidays, bonus and profit sharing schemes, seniority, rationalization and the issues relating to the fixation of workloads, and standard labour force, programmes of planning and development influencing workforce, issues relating to retrenchment and lay off, victimization for trade union activities, provident fund, gratuity and other retirement benefit schemes, incentive systems, housing and transport facilities, issues relating to discipline and shop rules, grievance procedure, working conditions and issues related to safety and accident prevention, occupational diseases and protective clothing, employee benefits such as canteens, rest rooms, medical and health services and crèches, administration of welfare funds, cooperative thrift and credit societies
and educational, recreational and training schemes. The Indian Institute of Personnel Management, Calcutta, gives the following as the subject matter of collective bargaining:
Importance of Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining includes not only negotiations between the employers and unions but also includes the process of resolving labor-management conflicts. Thus, collective bargaining is, essentially, a recognized way of creating a system of industrial jurisprudence.It acts as a method of introducing civil rights in the industry, that is, the management should be conducted by rules rather than arbitrary decision making. It establishes rules which define and restrict the traditional authority exercised by the management.
Importance to employees:
Importance to employers
Importance to society
It provides a method or the regulation of the conditions of employment of those who are directly concerned about them.
Our modern industrial system is threatened by the ravaging industrial disharmony characterized by the embittered relationships between the employers and the workers. A smooth industrial relations requi4res that all the participants are to be motivated to work whole heartedly for making the system to work. According to the new economic policy during 1991 a series of industrial fiscal and trade reforms were announced by the government to create industrial peace and prosperity. Generally, the reasons for industrial disputes in India were psychological, political and economic. To achieve industrial peace, changes in the attitude of workers, employers and trade unions are required along with political and economic changes. It is to be seen that whether such changes have taken place in India after the instruction of new economic policy.
In addition to main economic functions, some unions have now started undertaking and organizing welfare activities and also providing variety of services to services to their members and sometimes to the community of which they are a part, which may be grouped under the following heads:
They are provided to improve the quality of work life including organization of mutual fund cooperative societies for providing housing credit and socio cultural programmes, banking and medical facilities.
Education of members, creating awareness about the environment around them, enhancement of their knowledge particularly in regard to issue that concern them, their statutory and other rights and responsibilities, workers participation scheme, and procedure for redressing their grievances.
Publication of periodicals
News letters or magazines for establishing communication with their members, making the latter aware of union policy and stand on certain principal issues and personnel matters concerning members, such as births, deaths, marriages, promotion and achievements.
Of late this is gaining importance and is intended mainly to provide updated information to union negotiators systematically collected and analyzed at the bargaining table. Such research is to be more practical than academic concerning problems relating to day to affairs of the union and its activities and union and management relations. Some of the research activities like , collection and analysis of wage data including fringe benefits, and other benefits and services through surveys to comparative practices, data on working conditions and welfare activities.
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Changing Technology, Effective Communication And I.r Management Structure
Indian Culture, Industrial Relation International Labour Organization
Trade Union Legislation
Multiplicity Of Trade Unions
Industrial Relation Management And Management Of Trade Union
Ir Strategies - A Discussion
Worker Development And Worker’s Participation
Grievance Handling Machinery
Collective Bargaining – An Overview
Collective Bargaining In India
Collective Agreements In India
International Labour Organisation And Labour Council &constitutional Provisions
Labour Administration Machinery Of The Central Government
Industrial Relations And Its Contemporary Trends
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