Nature and Content of Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining is process of joint decision making and basically represents a democratic way of life in industry. It is the process of negotiation between firm’s and workers’ representatives for the purpose of establishing mutually agreeable conditions of employment.
Collective bargaining involves discussions and negotiations between two groups as to the terms and conditions of employment. It is called ‘collective’ because both the employer and the employee act as a group rather than as individuals. It is known as ‘bargaining’ because the method of reaching an agreement involves proposals and counter proposals,offers and counter offers and other negotiations.
Thus collective bargaining:
Forms of Collective Bargaining
A collective bargaining process generally consists of four types of activities- distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining, attitudinal restructuring and intra-organizational bargaining. Distributive bargaining: It involves haggling over the distribution of surplus. Under it, the economic issues like wages, salaries and bonus are discussed. In distributive bargaining, one party’s gain is another party’s loss. This is most commonly explained in terms of a pie.
Disputants can work together to make the pie bigger, so there is enough for both of them to have as much as they want, or they can focus on cutting the pie up, trying to get as much as they can for themselves. In general, distributive bargaining tends to be more competitive. This type of bargaining is also called conjunctive bargaining.
This involves negotiation of an issue on which both the parties may gain, or at least neither party loses. For example, representatives of employer and employee sides may bargain over the better training programme or a better job evaluation method. Here, both the parties are trying to make more of something. In general, it tends to be more cooperative than distributive bargaining. This type of bargaining is also known as cooperative bargaining.
This involves shaping and reshaping some attitudes like trust or distrust, friendliness or hostility between labor and management. When there is a backlog of bitterness between both the parties, attitudinal restructuring is required to maintain smooth and harmonious industrial relations. It develops a bargaining environment and creates trust and cooperation among the parties.
It generally aims at resolving internal conflicts. This is a type of maneuvering to achieve consensus with the workers and management. Even within the union, there may be differences between groups. For example, skilled workers may feel that they are neglected or women workers may feel that their interests are not looked after properly. Within the management also, there may be differences. Trade unions maneuver to achieve consensus among the conflicting groups.
Collective Bargaining Process
Collective bargaining generally includes negotiations between the two parties (employees’ representatives and employer’s representatives). Collective bargaining consists of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees that determine the conditions of employment. Often employees are represented in the bargaining by a union or other labor organization.The result of collective bargaining procedure is called the collective bargaining agreement. Collective agreements may be in the form of procedural agreements or substantive agreements. Procedural agreements deal with the relationship between workers and management and the procedures to be adopted for resolving individual or group disputes.
This will normally include procedures in respect of individual grievances, disputes and discipline. Frequently, procedural agreements are put into the company rule book which provides information on the overall terms and conditions of employment and codes of behavior. A substantive agreement deals with specific issues, such as basic pay, overtime premiums, bonus arrangements, holiday entitlements, hours of work, etc. In many companies, agreements have a fixed time scale and a collective bargaining process will review the procedural agreement when negotiations take place on pay and conditions of employment.
The collective bargaining process comprises of five core steps:
Collective Bargaining as a Method of Settlement of Disputes
Till now, collective bargaining has been taken as a means of arriving at an agreement. It establishes rules which the management is bound to implement. Specifically, collective bargaining is:
Tactics or Strategies in Collective Bargaining
The tactics or strategies to be adopted in any collective bargainingsituation vary depending upon the culture of the organization and different environmental factors, particularly the type of union operating in an industrial establishment.But the following are some of the common strategies to make collective bargaining exercise more meaningful:
Anycollective bargaining strategymust result in a good agreement or settlement, the characteristics of which are:
As a measure of follow up:
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Industrial Relations Management Tutorial
Introduction Of Industrial Relation Management
Concept And Determinants Of Industrial Relations And Its Position In India
Managing Industrial Relations Changes, Industrial Relations And Productivity
Changing Technology, Effective Communication And I.r Management Structure
Indian Culture, Industrial Relation International Labour Organization
Trade Union Legislation
Multiplicity Of Trade Unions
Industrial Relation Management And Management Of Trade Union
Ir Strategies - A Discussion
Worker Development And Worker’s Participation
Grievance Handling Machinery
Collective Bargaining – An Overview
Collective Bargaining In India
Collective Agreements In India
International Labour Organisation And Labour Council &constitutional Provisions
Labour Administration Machinery Of The Central Government
Industrial Relations And Its Contemporary Trends
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