Bipartism’s Contribution to Tripartism - Industrial Relations Management

Bipartism or more importantly, collective bargaining, which is a key instrument of bipartism, may reduce the need for tripartite interventions. In some cases, tripartism begins where bipartism fails. For instance, when bipartite dialogue does not result in dispute avoidance or settlement, tripartite interventions such as conciliation/mediation and arbitration/adjudication become imperative.

Bipartite arrangements can contribute in the following ways to facilitate meaningful and effective tripartite social dialogue at industry and national level:

  1. In countries where the representative character of the social partners is very much limited due to the predominant characteristics of an economy (large unorganized, in formal-sector economy), the outcomes of tripartite discussions do not necessarily reflect the wishes of the large majority of the working population, not to speak of the society at large. In these and similar other situations it is better to adopt a bottom-up approach through bipartite dialogue at enterprise level.
  2. The interests of employers and workers are affected by government policies in areas other than industrial relations such as fiscal, monetary, trade, taxation, licensing, etc. The effects of these aspects is;more closely and effectively reckoned and evaluated in bipartite consultations, particularly collective agreements, than in tripartite dialogue.
  3. Consensual approaches are best planned and implemented if they are developed by parties at the grass root level,that is plant level. The parties/persons directly affected should be involved in consensus-building social dialogue. Externally imposed

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