Indian Economy Introduction - Indian Economy

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Economy before British Rule

To comprehend the present level of the Indian economy, it is Primary to comprehend the Economic system of India during the British lead and post-independence financial development strategies.

  • Prior to the coming of British control, India had an autonomous economy. It was to a great extent Primarysector economy and the significant jobs were agriculture, handicrafts, and many other primary sector works.


  • The economy was brimming with resources and a prosperous one. Along these lines, top notch farming items and handicrafts made by the Indians were traded over the world.

Economy during British Rule

  • During the British lead, India's economy turned into a net crude material provider and a net merchant of completed items.
  • No British economist attempted to measure the per capita salary and nationalRevenue of India.economy_during_british_rule
  • A portion of the Indian economists Dadabhai Naoroji, V.K.R.V. Rao, R.C. Desai and British Findlay Shirras and William Digby attempted to measure India's national salary. Among all, V.K.R.V. Rao was the best.
  • Before independence, India's economy was exclusively reliant upon agribusiness.
  • 85 percent of the Indian populace wasrural and their fundamental wellspring of subsistence was horticulture.
  • During the British colonial period, horticulture (disregarding being the fundamental job) was experiencing numerous issues and consequently the compelling development was zero percent.
  • Land settlement system was absolutely for the British.
  • Agriculturalsystem was dormant; in any case, later there was a progressive development, yet that was not a direct result of change and improvement of the agrarian system, but since of the extension of rural land.

Zamindari System

  • Numerous sectors of India (especially Bengal sector of east India, the present West Bengal and Bangladesh) were honing Zamindari system (Land-lordship).
  • The principle work of the Zamindars was to gather the land Tax/lease. They nearly did nothing either to enhance the agribusiness system or the states of the ranchers.
  • Zamindars' uncaring disposition influenced agriculturists' lives gravely. A large portion of the districts of the country were confronting starvation and numerous other social issues and issues.
  • A portion of the locales, during the Zamindari system, prove development that was simply because of the commercialization of farming. In these sectors, the agriculturists had been compelled to deliver money edits rather than staple nourishment crops.

Major Problems

The significant issues were −

  • Drought,
  • Flood,
  • Poor irrigation system,
  • Desalicountry of soil,
  • Absence of technology, and
  • Poverty.
  • India did not experience any industrialization as all the crude materials were traded to the UK.
  • Crafted works and other small scale ventures endured seriously.
  • The primary expectation of British run was to make India, a market of their completed items.
  • In India, numerous enterprises grew even in the season of emergency. For instance, the jute business in West Bengal and the cotton material industry in sectors of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

The Industries

Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) were joined in the year 1907.


  • By the middle of the twentieth century, some different enterprises, for example, concrete; sugar, paper, and so forth were built up.
  • As all the above talked about ventures were moved in some sectoricular pockets of the country; accordingly, there was no change in the state of the ranchers.
  • During the colonial period, India turned into the exporter of jute, cotton, sugar, indigo, fleece, and so forth and merchant of completed items, for example, cotton and silk textures, woollen material, hardware, and different things.
  • In excess of 50 percent of India's exchange was coordinated to Britain; remaining 50 percent were traded different countries including China, Sri Lanka, and Persia (Iran).
  • 'Muslin' is a kind of cotton material which started in Bengal, especially, puts in and around Dhaka (beforehand Dacca), now and the capital city of Bangladesh. Henceforth, it was likewise well known as 'Daccai Muslin'.
  • As a result of its quality, Muslin earned notoriety over the world. Now and again, remote explorers additionally used to allude to it as malmal shahi or malmal khas inferring that it was worn by, or fit for, the sovereignty.

The accompanying picture demonstrates the dress made up of Muslin (the dress worn by the woman) and inset (picture) demonstrates the Muslin textures.


Other Facts

  • The surplus salary of India was utilized as a sector of setting up the official infrastructure for the British officers.
  • During the British period, a portion of the infrastructure, for example, road, rail, telegraph, ports, water transport, etc. were created, yet all these were produced not for the advantage of Indians, be that as it may, rather to serve the interests of British authorities.


  • The railroad, which was created in the 1850s, broke the hindrance of long separation travel and exchange. It likewise cultivated the commercialization of Indian agribusiness. In any case, this could barely be of any assistance to the ranchers.
  • The regional dissimilarity was high, as the Madras Presidency (whole South India) was more into assembling and governments sector and rest of India was in the farming segment.

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