During the past few centuries, great advances have been made in the human capability to record, store, and reproduce information, beginning with the invention of printing from movable type in 1450, followed by the development of photography and telephony, and culminating in the mass production of electronic digital computers in the latter half of the 20th century. New technologies for preserving and transmitting aural and visual information (e.g. digital audio tape, optical disc storage, and optical fibers) have further enhanced information processing.
The high-speed digital computer together with its peripherals provides an extremely efficient means of manipulating and modifying stored data. As a consequence, information systems based on such computers are able to carry out diverse tasks. They can perform scientific and engineering calculations, translate technical material from one natural language to another, conduct searches of bibliographic literature, provide tutorial instruction in various subjects, assist in design and manufacturing activities, make decisions for solving complex non-numerical problems (e.g. those related to medical diagnosis or mineral exploration) with expert software systems and so on. Moreover, the utility of computer systems is greatly enhanced by their ability to communicate with one another through computer networks, provided that proper communications connections have been established and the computer data files and programs have been modified to agree with a common communications protocol.
All these technological advances have made information a new basic resource, ranking along side material and energy resources in importance. There are, in fact, people who believe that control of information stores and processing facilities will become more important than natural resources as a source of social and economic power.
In today's scenario, there is no lack of data. Actually people are suffering from data-overload. Although we are indeed swamped by printout pollution, memo mania, mis-information and information overload; most of us still lack quality information. By quality information we mean information that is accurate, timely and relevant. Accuracy, timeliness and relevancy are the three key attributes of information.
Accuracy means more than 'one plus one equals two.' It means that the information is free from mistakes and errors. It means that information is clear and accurately reflects the meaning of data on which it is based. It conveys an accurate picture to the recipient and may require a graphical presentation rather than a table full of numbers. Accuracy means that information is free from bias. Manipulated or distorted information is worse than no information.
Timeliness means that getting the information to the recipients within the needed time frame. For example, yesterday's newspaper today or stock quotes a day or two after are normally of little value. Timeliness means that the recipients can get the information when they need it.
Relevancy means the use of a piece of information for a particular person. It is only on very rare occasions that information answers specifically for the recipient what, why, where, when, who and how? For example, the price of a computer can be quoted as follows: "Price of Model 7790 is Rs. 65990." This information may be accurate and timely, but it is irrelevant to a person who wants to know the specification of the computer that he/she is buying. A more appropriate answer for this particular customer may be "Price of Model 7790 whose specifications are Intel Pentium IV processor with 1.5 GHz clock speed, 40 GB Hard Disk, 128 MB SDRAM, 56 Kbps internal modem, 21" SVGA color monitor, etc. is Rs. 65990." Relevancy is a very subjective matter.Information that is relevant for one person might not be relevant for another.
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Ibm Mainframe Tutorial
Introduction To Software Development
Introduction To Ibm Mainframes
Tso And Ispf
Jes2, ]es3 And Sms
Introduction To Job Control Language (jcl)
The Job Statement
The Exec Statement
The Job And Exec Statements
The Dd Statement
Procedures And Symbolic Parameters
Generation Data Groups (gdg), Compile/link-edit And Run Jcls
Access Method Services (ams)
Additional Vsam Commands
Introduction To Rexx
Overview Of Rexx
Introduction To Cics
Exception Handling In Cics
Developing A Cics Application
Cics Programming Techniques
Basic Mapping Support (bms)
Transient Data Control
Temporary Storage Control
Interval And Task Control
Cics Application Design
Recovery And Restart
System Security And Intersystem Communication
Cics Debugging Facilities And Techniques
Bms Map Definition Macros And Copylib Members
Cics Response And Abend Codes
Data, Information And Information Processing
Introduction To Database Management Systems
Introduction To Relational Database Management Systems
Database Architecture And Data Modeling
Overview Of Db2
Structured Query Language (sql)
Data Security And Access
Db2 Application Development
Qmf And Db2i
Db2 Performance Monitoring, Utilities And Recovery/restart
Overview Of Information Management System (ims)
Introduction To Vs Cobol Ii
Overview Of Application Development In Vs Cobol Ii
Overview Of The Cobol Program
Sorting And Merging Files
Coding Cobol Programs That Run Under Cics. Ims, Db2 And Ispf
Compiling The Program
Link-editing The Program
Executing The Program
Improving Program Performance
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