FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. An FTP server allows clients to connect to it either anonymously or with a username and password combination. After successful authentication, files can be transferred back and forth between the server and client. The files are neither encrypted nor compressed.
To deny specific users access to the FTP server, add their usernames to the /etc/vsftpd/ ftpusers file. By default, system users such as root and nobody are included in this list.
Yes, If the xferlog_enable directive in vsftpd.conf is set to YES, file transfers using the FTP protocol are logged to /var/log/xferlog. Information such as a time stamp, IP address of the client, the file being transferred, and the username of the person who authenticated the connection is included in the log entry.
Maximum number of clients that can connect at one time. If set to 0, the number of clients is unlimited.
Yes. We actually have two slightly different methods to monitor vsftpd clients. First, make sure you have enabled the config option, "setproctitle_enable=YES" like in our example above and restart your vsftpd server. Then run the command "watch ps -Cvsftpd -o user, pid, stime, cmd" to watch the processes including ip, username and actions like idle or data retrieval.
ftp -i ftpserver.
Check "local_enable=YES" in your /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd. conf to allow local users to log in.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 or FEDORA includes the vsftpd FTP service.
vsftpd-2.0.5-12.el5 (For Redhat).
The FTP server uses the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf configuration file. Using this file, you can set options for displaying a custom banner message after users log in, setting the default file permissions for uploaded files, and setting the port on which to listen for incoming connections.
FTP uses two ports, 20 and 21. By default, the FTP server listens for requests on port 21. After a connection is established, the client sends commands to the server on port 21. However, port 20 is used when the server sends data back to the client.
service vsftpd restart.
Anonymous FTP is enabled by default by setting the anonymous_enable directive in /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf to YES.
Passive mode, like active mode, is initiated by the FTP client application. When requesting data from the server, the FTP client indicates it wants to access the data in passive mode and the server provides the IP address and a random, unprivileged port (greater than 1024) on the server. The client then connects to that port on the server to download the requested information.
When enabled, vsftpd attempts to maintain login sessions for each user through Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM).
In cryptography, a brute force attack is a strategy used to break the encryption of data. It involves traversing the search space of possible keys until the correct key is found.
The selection of an appropriate key length depends on the practical feasibility of performing a brute force attack. By obfuscating the data to be encoded, brute force attacks are made less effective as it is more difficult to determine when one has succeeded in breaking the code.
In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.
FTP bounce attack is an exploit of the FTP protocol whereby an attacker is able to use the PORT command to request access to ports indirectly through the use of the victim machine as a middle man for the request.
This technique can be used to port scan hosts discreetly, and to access specific ports that the attacker cannot access through a direct connection.
nmap is a port scanner that can utilize an FTP bounce attack to scan other servers.
The representation of the IP addresses and port numbers in the PORT command and PASV reply poses a challenge to FTP in traversing Network address translators (NAT). The NAT device must alter these values, so that they contain the IP address of the NAT ed client, and a port chosen by the NAT device for the data connection. The new address and port will probably differ in length in their decimal representation from the original address and port. Such translation is not usually performed in most NAT devices, but special application layer gateways exist for this purpose.
Where FTP access is restricted, a remote FTP or FTPmail service can be used to circumvent the problem. An email containing the FTP commands to be performed is sent to a remote FTP server, which is a mail server that parses the incoming email, executes the FTP commands, and sends back an email with any downloaded files as an attachment. Obviously this is less flexible than an FTP client, as it is not possible to view directories interactively or to modify commands, and there can also be problems with large file attachments in the response not getting through mail servers. As most internet users these days have ready access to FTP, this procedure is no longer in everyday use.
A host that provides an FTP service may additionally provide anonymous FTP access. Users typically log into the service with an anonymous account when prompted for user name. Although users are commonly asked to send their email address in lieu of a password, no verification is actually performed on the supplied data, examples of anonymous FTP servers can be found here.
The original FTP specification has many security concerns. In May 1999, the following flaws were addressed:
Short for File Transfer Protocol, FTP was first proposed on April 16, 1971 by Abhay Bhushan for and developed for implementation on hosts at MIT. FTP was later defined by RFC 959 that was published in 1985.
FTP uses network ports 20 and 21. Below are other ports that may be used by other types of FTP.
FileZillaBelow is a short listing of some of the software programs you can use to connect to an FTP server from your computer.
FileZilla - A fantastic free and our recommended FTP and SFTP program with everything most users need.
WinSCP - Another fantastic and free FTP, SFTP, SCP utility that also supports scripting.
SmartFTP - A great FTP with everything most users need.
CuteFTP - Another popular and widely used FTP program.
Internet Explorer - Users who have Microsoft Internet Explorer on their computer can also use Internet Explorer to connect to FTP servers.
Also, many computers, including all Microsoft Windows computers, Linux computers, and Mac OS X computers, come with a command line FTP command.