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Finding another job can be so cumbersome that it can turn into a job itself. Prepare well for the job interviews to get your dream job. Here's our recommendation on the important things to You need to prepare for the job interview to achieve your career goals in an easy way. Discounted Cash Flow (dcf) is a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of an investment opportunity. The formula is the sum of the cash flow in each period divided by one plus the discount rate raised to the power of the period. Strong determination is required to crack the job. Follow our Wisdomjobs page for Discounted Cash Flow (dcf) job interview questions and answers page to get through your job interview successfully in first attempt.
"A DCF values a company based on the Present Value of its Cash Flows and the Present Value of its Terminal Value.
First, you project out a company's financials using assumptions for revenue growth, expenses and Working Capital; then you get down to Free Cash Flow for each year, which you then sum up and discount to a Net Present Value, based on your discount rate - usually the Weighted Average Cost of Capital.
Once you have the present value of the Cash Flows, you determine the company's Terminal Value, using either the Multiples Method or the Gordon Growth Method, and then also discount that back to its Net Present Value using WACC.
Finally, you add the two together to determine the company's Enterprise Value."
Subtract COGS and Operating Expenses to get to Operating Income (EBIT). Then, multiply by (1 - Tax Rate), add back Depreciation and other non-cash charges, and subtract Capital Expenditures and the change in Working Capital.
Note: This gets you to Unlevered Free Cash Flow since you went off EBIT rather than EBT. You might want to confirm that this is what the interviewer is asking for.
Take Cash Flow From Operations and subtract CapEx - that gets you to Levered Cash Flow. To get to Unlevered Cash Flow, you then need to add back the tax-adjusted Interest Expense and subtract the tax-adjusted Interest Income.
That's usually about as far as you can reasonably predict into the future. Less than 5 years would be too short to be useful, and over 10 years is too difficult to predict for most companies.
Normally you use WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital), though you might also use Cost of Equity depending on how you've set up the DCF.
The formula is: Cost of Equity * (% Equity) + Cost of Debt * (% Debt) * (1 - Tax Rate) + Cost of Preferred * (% Preferred).
In all cases, the percentages refer to how much of the company's capital structure is taken up by each component.
For Cost of Equity, you can use the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM - see the next question) and for the others you usually look at comparable companies/debt issuances and the interest rates and yields issued by similar companies to get estimates.
Cost of Equity = Risk-Free Rate + Beta * Equity Risk Premium
The risk-free rate represents how much a 10-year or 20-year US Treasury should yield; Beta is calculated based on the "riskiness" of Comparable Companies and the Equity Risk Premium is the % by which stocks are expected to out-perform "risk-less" assets.
Normally you pull the Equity Risk Premium from a publication called Ibbotson's.
Note: This formula does not tell the whole story. Depending on the bank and how precise you want to be, you could also add in a "size premium" and "industry premium" to account for how much a company is expected to out-perform its peers is according to its market cap or industry.
Small company stocks are expected to out-perform large company stocks and certain industries are expected to out-perform others, and these premiums reflect these expectations.
You look up the Beta for each Comparable Company (usually on Bloomberg), un-lever each one, take the median of the set and then lever it based on your company's capital structure. Then you use this Levered Beta in the Cost of Equity calculation.
For your reference, the formulas for un-levering and re-levering Beta are below:
Un-Levered Beta = Levered Beta / (1 + ((1 - Tax Rate) x (Total Debt/Equity))) Levered Beta = Un-Levered Beta x (1 + ((1 - Tax Rate) x (Total Debt/Equity)))
Again, keep in mind our "apples-to-apples" theme. When you look up the Betas on Bloomberg (or from whatever source you're using) they will be levered to reflect the debt already assumed by each company.
But each company's capital structure is different and we want to look at how "risky" a company is regardless of what % debt or equity it has.
To get that, we need to un-lever Beta each time.
But at the end of the calculation, we need to re-lever it because we want the Beta used in the Cost of Equity calculation to reflect the true risk of our company, taking into account its capital structure this time.
Levered Free Cash Flow gives you Equity Value rather than Enterprise Value, since the cash flow is only available to equity investors (debt investors have already been "paid" with the interest payments).
You would use the Cost of Equity rather than WACC since we're not concerned with Debt or Preferred Stock in this case - we're calculating Equity Value, not Enterprise Value.
You can either apply an exit multiple to the company's Year 5 EBITDA, EBIT or Free Cash Flow (Multiples Method) or you can use the Gordon Growth method to estimate its value based on its growth rate into perpetuity.
The formula for Terminal Value using Gordon Growth is: Terminal Value = Year 5 Free Cash Flow * (1 + Growth Rate) / (Discount Rate - Growth Rate).
In banking, you almost always use the Multiples Method to calculate Terminal Value in a DCF. It's much easier to get appropriate data for exit multiples since they are based on Comparable Companies - picking a long-term growth rate, by contrast, is always a shot in the dark.
However, you might use Gordon Growth if you have no good Comparable Companies or if you have reason to believe that multiples will change significantly in the industry several years down the road. For example, if an industry is very cyclical you might be better off using long-term growth rates rather than exit multiples.
Normally you use the country's long-term GDP growth rate, the rate of inflation, or something similarly conservative.
For companies in mature economies, a long-term growth rate over 5% would be quite aggressive since most developed economies are growing at less than 5% per year.
Normally you look at the Comparable Companies and pick the median of the set, or something close to it.
As with almost anything else in finance, you always show a range of exit multiples and what the Terminal Value looks like over that range rather than picking one specific number.
So if the median EBITDA multiple of the set were 8x, you might show a range of values using multiples from 6x to 10x.
It's hard to generalize because both are highly dependent on the assumptions you make. In general, the Multiples Method will be more variable than the Gordon Growth method because exit multiples tend to span a wider range than possible long-term growth rates.
The median multiples may change greatly in the next 5-10 years so it may no longer be accurate by the end of the period you're looking at. This is why you normally look at a wide range of multiples and do a sensitivity to see how the valuation changes over that range.
This method is particularly problematic with cyclical industries (e.g. semiconductors).
The "standard" answer: if significantly more than 50% of the company's Enterprise Value comes from its Terminal Value, your DCF is probably too dependent on future assumptions.
In reality, almost all DCFs are "too dependent on future assumptions" - it's actually quite rare to see a case where the Terminal Value is less than 50% of the Enterprise Value.
But when it gets to be in the 80-90% range, you know that you may need to re-think your assumptions.
More debt means that the company is more risky, so the company's Levered Beta will be higher - all else being equal, additional debt would raise the Cost of Equity, and less debt would lower the Cost of Equity.
Question 20. Cost Of Equity Tells Us What Kind Of Return An Equity Investor Can Expect For Investing In A Given Company - But What About Dividends? Shouldn't We Factor Dividend Yield Into The Formula?
Dividend yields are already factored into Beta, because Beta describes returns in excess of the market as a whole - and those returns include dividends.
There is an alternate formula:
Cost of Equity = (Dividends per Share / Share Price) + Growth Rate of Dividends
This is less common than the "standard" formula but sometimes you use it for companies where dividends are more important or when you lack proper information on Beta and the other variables that go into calculating Cost of Equity with CAPM.
However, the above is true only to a certain point. Once a company's debt goes up high enough, the interest rate will rise dramatically to reflect the additional risk and so the Cost of Debt would start to increase - if it gets high enough, it might become higher than Cost of Equity and additional debt would increase WACC.
It's a "U-shape" curve where debt decreases WACC to a point, then starts increasing it.
You should start by saying, "it depends" but most of the time the 10% difference in revenue will have more of an impact.
That change in revenue doesn't affect only the current year's revenue, but also the revenue/EBITDA far into the future and even the terminal value.
In this case the discount rate is likely to have a bigger impact on the valuation, though the correct answer should start with, "It could go either way, but most of the time..."
This is problematic because private companies don't have market caps or Betas. In this case you would most likely just estimate WACC based on work done by auditors or valuation specialists, or based on what WACC for comparable public companies is.
You can take a few different approaches:
Banks use debt differently than other companies and do not re-invest it in the business -they use it to create products instead. Also, interest is a critical part of banks' business models and working capital takes up a huge part of their Balance Sheets - so a DCF for a financial institution would not make much sense. For financial institutions, it's more common to use a dividend discount model for valuation purposes.
And any combination of these (except Terminal Multiple vs. Long-Term Growth Rate, which would make no sense).
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Risk And Return On At&t Common Stock
Fixed-income Securities: Characteristics And Valuation
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Capital Structure Management In Practice
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