The single most dramatic way to affect performance in a large data warehouse is to provide a proper set of aggregate (summary) records that coexist with the primary base records. Aggregates can have a very significant effect on performance, in some cases speeding queries by a factor of a hundred or even a thousand. No other means exist to harvest such spectacular gains. Certainly, the IT owners of a data warehouse should exhaust the potential for performance gains with aggregates before investing in major new hardware purchases. The benefits of a comprehensive aggregate-building program can be realized with almost every data warehouse hardware and software configuration, including all of the popular relational DBMSs such as Oracle, Red Brick, Informix, Sybase, and DB2, and uniprocessor, SMP and MPP parallel processing architectures. This section describes how to structure a data warehouse to maximize the benefits of aggregates and how to build and use those aggregates without requiring complex accompanying metadata.
Aggregate navigation is a standard data warehouse topic that has been discussed extensively in literature. Let’s illustrate this discussion with the simple dimensional schema in Figure below.
The main points are:
The goals of an aggregate program in a large data warehouse need to be more than just improving performance. A good aggregate program for a large data warehouse should:
A well-designed aggregate environment can achieve all these objectives. A poorly designed aggregate environment can fail all of the objectives!Here is a series of design requirements, which, if adhered to, will achieve our desired objectives.
Design Requirement #1
Aggregates must be stored in their own fact tables, separate from base-level data. Each distinct aggregation level must occupy its own unique fact table.
The separation of aggregates into their own fact tables is very important and has a whole series of beneficial side effects. First, the aggregate navigation scheme described in this section is much simpler when the aggregates occupy their own tables, because the aggregate navigator can learn almost everything it needs from the DBMS’s ordinary system catalog, rather than needing additional metadata. Second, an end user is much less likely to accidentally double-count additive fact totals when the aggregates are in separate tables, because every query against a given fact table will by definition go against data of a uniform granularity. Third, the small number of giant numerical entries representing, for instance, national sales totals for the entire year do not have to be shoehorned into the base table. Often, the presence of these few giant numbers forces the database designer to increase the field with of all entries in the database, thereby wasting disk storage. Since the base table is huge and occupies perhaps half of the entire database, it is very helpful to keep its field widths as tight as possible. And fourth, the administration of aggregates is more modular and segmented when the aggregates occupy separate tables. Aggregates can be built at separate times, and with an aggregate navigator, individual aggregates can be taken off-line and placed back on-line throughout the day without affecting other data.
Design Requirement #2
The dimension tables attached to the aggregate fact tables must, wherever possible, be shrunken versions of the dimension tables associated with the base fact table.
The MOST shrunken version of a dimension is a dimension removed altogether!
In other words, assuming the base-level fact table as shown in Figure, we might wish to build category-level aggregates, representing the product dimension rolled up from the individual product to the category. See Figure .We call this the one-way category aggregate schema. Notice that in this case we have not requested aggregates in either the time dimension or the store dimension. The table in Figure represents how much of a category of a product has sold in each store each day. Our design requirement tells us that the original product table must now be replaced with a shrunken product table, which we might as well call category. A simple way to look at this shrunken product table is to think of it as containing only fields that survive the aggregation from individual product up to the category level. Only a few fields will still be uniquely defined.
For example, both the category description and the department description would be well defined at the category level, and these must have the same field names they have in the base product dimension table. However, the individual UPC number, the package size, and the flavor would not exist at this level and must not appear in the category table.
Shrunken dimension tables are extremely important for aggregate navigation because the scope of any particular aggregation level can be determined by looking in the system catalog description of the shrunken table. In other words, when we look in the category table, all we find is category description and department description. If a query asks for product flavor, we know immediately that this aggregation level cannot satisfy the query, and thus the aggregate navigator must look elsewhere.
Shrunken dimension tables are also attractive because they allow us to avoid filling the original dimension tables with weird null values for all the dimension attributes that are not applicable at higher levels of aggregation. In other words, since we don’t have flavor and package size in the category table, we don’t have to dream up null values for these fields, and we don’t have to encode user applications with tests for these null values.
Although we have focused on shrunken dimension tables, it is possible that the number of measures in the fact table will also shrink as we build ever-higher levels of aggregation. Most of the basic additive facts such as dollar sales, unit sales, and dollar cost will survive at all levels of aggregation, but some dimensions such as promotion and some facts such promotion cost may make sense only at the base level and need to be dropped in the aggregate fact tables.
A simplification of requirement #2 builds aggregate fact tables only where specific dimensions are completely eliminated rather than just shrunk. For example, in a retail sales fact table, the location (or store) dimension could be eliminated, effectively creating a national total sales fact table. This approach, when it can be used, has the advantage that the aggregate fact table is now impervious to changes in the dropped dimension. Thus, you could change the definitions of your geographic regions and the table in our example would not change, whereas a partially shrunken location dimension that rolled up to region would need to be recalculated. This approach is not a panacea; in our example, the only queries that could use the proposed aggregate table would be ones that requested the national sales totals.
Design Requirement #3
The base fact table and all its related aggregate fact tables can be associated together as a family of schemas so that the aggregate navigator knows which tables are related to each other. Any single schema in the family consists of a fact table and its associated dimension tables. There is always exactly one base schema that is the unaggregated data, and there will be one or more aggregate schemas, representing computed summary data. Figure is a base schema, and Figure is one of perhaps many aggregate schemas in our family.
The registration of this family of fact tables, together with the associated full-size and shrunken dimension tables, is the sole metadata needed in this design.
Design Requirement #4
Force all SQL created by any end user or application to refer exclusively to the base fact table and its associated full-size dimension tables.
This design requirement pervades all user interfaces and all end user applications. When a user examines a graphical depiction of the database, he or she should see only the equivalent of Figure. The user should not be aware that aggregate tables even exist! Similarly, all hand-coded SQL embedded in report writers or other complex applications should only reference the base fact table and its associated full-size dimension tables.
Administering Aggregations, Including Materialized Views
There are a number of different physical variations of aggregations, depending on the DBMS and the front-end tools. From our design requirements in the previous section, we see that the correct architecture of an aggregate navigator is a middleware module sitting in front of the DBMS intercepting all SQL and examining it for possible redirection. The wrong architecture is an aggregate navigation scheme embedded in a single proprietary front-end tool, where the aggregation benefit is not available to all SQL clients.
There are two fundamental approaches to aggregating navigation at the time of this writing. One is to support a variation of the explicit shrunken fact and dimension tables described in the previous section. The other is to dynamically create these tables by designating certain ephemeral queries to be materialized as actual data written to the disk so that subsequent queries can immediately access this data without recomputing the query. Oracle’s Materialized Views are an example of the second approach.
Both the explicit-table approach and the materialized-view approach require the DBA to be aware of the effects on the aggregates of updating the underlying base fact tables. Immediately after updating the base tables, the aggregates are invalid and must not be used. In most environments, the base tables must be published to the user community immediately, before all of the aggregates have been recomputed.
Routine daily additions to fact tables may allow the aggregates to be updated by just adding into the various aggregate buckets. But significant changes to the content or logic of a dimension table may require aggregates to be completely dropped and recomputed. For example, Type 1 corrections to historical dimension data will require aggregates to be recomputed if the aggregate is based on the attribute that was changed. But the converse is true! If the changed attribute is not the target of an aggregate, the aggregate can be left alone. For example, one could completely remap the flavor attributes of a big product file and the Category aggregate would not be affected. Visualizing these dependencies is a critical skill in managing the portfolio of aggregates.
Note that Type 2 changes to a dimension generally will not require any aggregates to be rebuilt, as long as the change is administered promptly and does not involve the late-arriving data scenario. Type 2 changes do not affect the existing aggregates; they were correct when they were written.
Generally, a given aggregate fact table should be at least ten-times smaller than the base fact table in order to make the tradeoff between administrative overhead and performance gain worthwhile. Roughly speaking, the performance gain of an aggregate is directly proportional to the storageshrinkage factor. In other words, an aggregate fact table ten-times smaller than the base table will be about ten-times as fast.
If the overall aggregate table portfolio occupies only 1 percent of the total fact table storage, not enough aggregates have been built. A total aggregate overhead approaching 100 percent (that is, a doubling of the total storage) is reasonable.
Large hardware-based, parallel-processing architectures gain exactly the same performance advantages from aggregates as uniprocessor systems with conventional disk storage, since the gain comes simply from reducing total I/O. However, the salesperson and system engineers of these hardware-intensive systems will deny this because their business is based on selling more hardware, not on improving the performance of the system with clever data structures. Beware!
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