Linked data structure - Data Structures

In computer science, a linked data structure is a data structure which consists of a set of data records (nodes) linked together and organized by references (links or pointers).
In linked data structures, the links are usually treated as special data types that can only be dereferenced or compared for equality. Linked data structures are thus contrasted with arrays and other data structures that require performing arithmetic operations on pointers. This distinction holds even when the nodes are actually implemented as elements of a single array, and the references are actually array indices: as long as no arithmetic is done on those indices, the data structure is essentially a linked one.
Linked data structures include linked lists, search trees, expression trees, and many other widely used data structures. They are also key building blocks for many efficient algorithms, such as topological sort and set union-find.

Common Types of Linked Data Structures
Linked Lists
Basic Properties

  • Objects, called nodes, are linked in a linear sequence
  • A reference to the first node of the list is always kept. This is called the 'head' or 'front'.

A linked list whose nodes contain two fields: an integer value and a link to the next node

Common Types of Linked Data Structures Linked Lists

Example in Java
This is an example of the node class used to store integers in a Java implementation of a linked list.

public class IntNode {public int value;public IntNode link;public IntNode(int v) { value = v; } }

Search Trees
Basic Properties

  • Objects, called nodes, are stored in an ordered set
  • In-order traversal provides an ascending readout of the data in the tree
  • Sub trees of the tree are in themselves, trees.

Advantages and disadvantages
Against Arrays
Compared to arrays, linked data structures allow more flexibility in organizing the data and in allocating space for it. With arrays, we must choose a size for our array once and for all, this can be a potential waste of memory. A linked data structure is built dynamically and never needs to be bigger than the programmer requires. It also requires no guessing in terms of how much space you must allocate when using a linked data structure. This is a feature that is key in saving wasted memory. The nodes of a linked data structure can also be moved individually to different locations without affecting the logical connections between them, unlike arrays. With due care, a process can add or delete nodes to one part of a data structure even while other processes are working on other parts. On the other hand, access to any particular node in a linked data structure requires following a chain of references that stored in it. If the structure has n nodes, and each node contains at most b links, there will be some nodes that cannot be reached in less than logb n steps. For many structures, some nodes may require worst case up to n−1 steps. In contrast, many array data structures allow access to any element with a constant number of operations, independent of the numbe of entries.

General Disadvantages
Linked data structures also may also incur in substantial memory allocation overhead (if nodes are allocated individually) and frustrate memory paging and processor caching algorithms (since they generally have poor locality of reference). In some cases, linked data structures may also use more memory (for the link fields) than competing array structures. This is because linked data structures are not contiguous. Instances of data can be found all over in memory, unlike arrays. In some theoretical models of computation that enforce the constraints of linked structures, such as the pointer machine, many problems require more steps than in the unconstrained random access machine model.

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