Are you a person with commendable knowledge in Hardware? Are you a Electronic or computer engineer then logon to www.wisdomjobs.com. CPU is Electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic logical control and input and output instructions. Itis the primary component of a computer that acts as a simple processor, brain system where all basic arithmetic and logical operations are done. CPU includes Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit and ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations. Control Unit which extracts instructions from memory and decodes. So track your future as CPU expert, Process Verification Engineer, Integration Engineer Performance Engineer by looking into CPU job interview question and answers given below.
The characteristics of the CU or control unit are as follows:
The characteristics of the ALU are as follows:
The basic logical structure of a computer are as follows:
Although the CPU needs only a few parts to do its job, it has been modified to increase its performance. The enhancements are made in order to process data faster.
One of the weaknesses of the basic CPU was that it was not doing any processing during the time that it fetches an instruction from the computer memory.
To reduce this, a memory storage area was created inside the CPU called Cache or L1 type Cache. The Cache is very fast, and is used to store information that the CPU needed to access the most. Level 2 Cache was also developed.
Now that the CPU has to wait much less for the data to be processed, the speed at which the data can be processed had to be enhanced. To do this, multiple ALUs (Arithmetic Logic Unit ) were placed on the CPU, so that many more calculation was done each clock cycle.
In addition, the FPU (Floating Point Unit) was added. The FPU is similar to the ALU, except that it is more advanced. It can handle extremely large and extremely small numbers, allowing greater processing speeds. Also, it can simultaneously process multiple graphics and sounds at a time.
The following steps are followed-
It is a type of processing in which the CPU divides the problem into two parts.
It works as:
It is a temporary memory storage area which helps to speed up data transfer within a computer. A Microprocessor looks for the data in the Cache memory as the data transferred Cache is much faster. If the data is not found in the cache, the CPU looks for it in the memory.
The following are two types of Cache-
The Internal Cache is the fastest but it is very expensive.
System Bus are parallel electrical paths that transport data between the CPU and Memory.
Bus Width: The number of electrical paths that to carry the data. It is measured in Bits. With larger Bus Widths, a CPU can transfer more data at a time.
Bus Speed: The speed of the bus is measured in megahertz (MHz), refers to how much data can move across the bus simultaneously. Personal computers have a bus speeds of 400 MHz or 533 MHz.
In RAM or Random Access Memory, Data can be accessed randomly.
There are two types of RAM-
Static RAM: It retains its contents with the help of CPU. It is faster and more expensive than Dynamic RAM. It is generally used for Level 2 cache.
Dynamic RAM: It cannot retain its contents if not continuously refreshed by the CPU.
Its types are-
Some of the memory components are:
Semiconductor Memory: It is used by most by most modern computers. It is reliable, inexpensive and compact. However, it requires continuous power supply and data is lost if current is interrupted.
RAM and ROM: They stand for Random Access Memory and Read Only Memory respectively.
Flash Memory: This memory is electrically erasable and reprogrammable.
Transistors are electronic switches that may or may not allow the flow of current in a current path.
A Microprocessor is a miniature CPU unit that is etched on a silicon chip. A CPU (Central Processing Unit) hardware which carries out the instructions of a computer system. The Microprocessor unit consists of millions of tiny transistors. It has multi purposes and is programmable. They operate on numbers and symbols represented in Binary Numeral Language.
They comprise of the following key components-
Central Processing Unit: It carries out the instructions of a computer system
Registers: They store bits of information in a way that all the bits can be written to or read out simultaneously.
System clock: simple count of the number of ticks that have transpired since some arbitrary starting date, called the Epoch.
Coding schemes are a common way of representing a character of data. It is required in computers for exchanging data. The following are a few common coding schemes-
ASCII: It stands for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is used on almost all computers, hence considered as a standard coding scheme.
EBCDIC: It stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. Its is primarily used in IBM and IBM-compatible mainframes.
Unicode: It is designed to accommodate alphabets (- 256). It uses 16 bits to represent one character and requires twice as much space to store data. It can have a maximum of 65,536 possible values.
Some of the characteristics of the system clock are as follows:
It is an enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer system such as the Motherboard and other Storage devices.
Motherboard: It is a Flat circuit board that holds the computer circuitry.
Storage devices: These devices are used for long term storage of memory. Some of them are- hard drive, diskette, DVD_ROM, etc.
Some of the characteristics of instruction time are as follows:
Some characteristics of execution time are:
It is the time required by the control unit to move data from the memory to the registers in the ALU, the ALU is responsible for the execution of instructions on this data.
The following steps are involved in the execution of a program:
Fetch: The control unit is given an instruction.
Decode: The control unit then decodes the newly received instruction.
Execute: During the execution the Control unit first commands the correct part of hardware to take action. Once that is found out the control is handed over to the hardware. Now the task is performed.
Store: Once the task is saved successfully the end result is stored.
After the cycle is complete the Control unit is again handled the conrol.
There are three ways in which data can be represented namely Bit, Byte and Word:
Bit: This is also the short name for binary digits. By being binary it means that BIT can only have two values zero and one. A characteristic of BIT is that it can never be empty. Zero implies a power off state whereas one means on state.
Byte: A byte is a collection or group of 8 bits. A byte can store a single character which can either be an alphabet, a number or a special character. The byte is generally used to measure the storage capacities.
Word: The number of bits that a cpu possess indicates the power of the computer. It also indicates how many number of bytes are present. In today`s date most computers can handle 32 or 64 bit length.
There are overall two main types of storage:
Primary Storage ( memory ): This type of storage is primarily used to store information temporarily. The CPU does not directly access the secondary memory, instead it always relies on the primary memory.
Secondary storage: This type of storage is primarily used to store data or long periods. This type of memory is stored in external devices such as hard drives etc.
Any data that resides on a disk or input device cannot be accessed by the CPU directly, it should always reside in the main memory. The control unit accesses the data from the disk memory and places it in the main memory.
The data is present in the primary memory until the program requiring it is executed or is terminated.
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