Assertions are a commonly used idiom for defensive programming. Suppose you areconvinced that a particular property is fulfilled, and you rely on that property in yourcode. For example, you may be computing
You are certain that x is not negative. Perhaps it is the result of another computation that can’t have a negative result, or it is a parameter of a method that requires its callers to supply only positive inputs. Still, you want to double-check rather than having confusing “not a number” floating-point values creep into your computation. You could, of course, throw an exception:
But this code stays in the program, even after testing is complete. If you have lots of checks of this kind, the program runs quite a bit slower than it should.
The assertion mechanism allows you to put in checks during testing and to have them automatically removed in the production code.
As of Java SE 1.4, the Java language has a keyword assert. There are two forms:and
Both statements evaluate the condition and throw an AssertionError if it is false. In the second statement, the expression is passed to the constructor of the AssertionError object and turned into a message string.To assert that x is nonnegative, you can simply use the statement
Or you can pass the actual value of x into the AssertionError object, so that it gets displayed later.
C++ NOTE: The assert macro of the C language turns the assertion condition into a string that is printed if the assertion fails. For example, if assert(x >= 0) fails, it prints that "x >= 0" is the failing condition. In Java, the condition is not automatically part of the error report. If you want to see it, you have to pass it as a string into the AssertionError object: assert x >= 0 : "x >= 0".
Assertion Enabling and Disabling
By default, assertions are disabled. You enable them by running the program with the -enable assertions or -ea option:
Note that you do not have to recompile your program to enable or disable assertions. Enabling or disabling assertions is a function of the class loader. When assertions are disabled, the class loader strips out the assertion code so that it won’t slow execution.
You can even turn on assertions in specific classes or in entire packages. For example:
This command turns on assertions for the class My Class and all classes in the com .mycompany .mylib package and its sub packages. The option -ea... turns on assertions in all classes of the default package.
You can also disable assertions in certain classes and packages with the –disableassertions or -da option:
Some classes are not loaded by a class loader but directly by the virtual machine. You can use these switches to selectively enable or disable assertions in those classes. However, the -ea and -da switches that enable or disable all assertions do not apply to the “system classes” without class loaders. Use the -enablesystemassertions/-esa switch to enable assertions in system classes. It is also possible to programmatically control the assertion status of class loaders. See the API notes at the end of this section.
Using Assertions for Parameter Checking
The Java language gives you three mechanisms to deal with system failures:
• Throwing an exception
• Using assertions
When should you choose assertions? Keep these points in mind:
• Assertion failures are intended to be fatal, unrecoverable errors.
• Assertion checks are turned on only during development and testing. (This is sometimes jokingly described as
“wearing a life jacket when you are close to shore, and throwing it overboard once you are in the middle of the ocean. Therefore, you would not use assertions for signaling recoverable conditions to another part of the program or for communicating problems to the program user. Assertions should only be used to locate internal program errors during testing.
Let’s look at a common scenario—the checking of method parameters. Should you use assertions to check for illegal index values or null references? To answer that question, you have to look at the documentation of the method. Suppose you implement a sorting method.
The documentation states that the method throws an exception if the index values are incorrect. That behavior is part of the contract that the method makes with its callers. If you implement the method, you have to respect that contract and throw the indicated exceptions. It would not be appropriate to use assertions instead.
Should you assert that a is not null? That is not appropriate either. The method documentation is silent on the behavior of the method when a is null. The callers have the right to assume that the method will return successfully in that case and not throw an assertion error.
However, suppose the method contract had been slightly different:
Now the callers of the method have been put on notice that it is illegal to call the method with a null array. Then the method may start with the assertion
Computer scientists call this kind of contract a precondition. The original method had no preconditions on its parameters—it promised a well-defined behavior in all cases. The revised method has a single precondition: that a is not null. If the caller fails to fulfill the precondition, then all bets are off and the method can do anything it wants. In fact, with the assertion in place, the method has a rather unpredictable behavior when it is called illegally. It sometimes throws an assertion error, and sometimes a null pointer exception, depending on how its class loader is configured.
Using Assertions for Documenting Assumptions
Many programmers use comments to document their underlying assumptions.
Of course, it would make even more sense to think through the issue a bit more thoroughly. What are the possible values of i % 3? If i is positive, the remainders must be 0, 1, or 2. If i is negative, then the remainders can be −1 or −2. Thus, the real assumption is that i is not negative. A better assertion would be assert i >= 0; before the if statement.
At any rate, this example shows a good use of assertions as a self-check for the programmer. As you can see, assertions are a tactical tool for testing and debugging. In contrast, logging is a strategic tool for the entire life cycle of a program. We will examine logging in the next section.
enables or disables assertions for the given class and its inner classes.
enables or disables assertions for all classes in the given package and its subpackages.
removes all explicit class and package assertion status settings and disables assertions for all classes loaded by this class loader.
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Core Java Tutorial
An Introduction To Java
The Java Programming Environment
Fundamental Programming Structures In Java
Objects And Classes
Interfaces And Inner Classes
User Interface Components With Swing
Deploying Applications And Applets
Exceptions, Logging, Assertions, And Debugging
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