There are three broad forms of cultural values as shown in Figure Values, norms sanctions and consumption pattern.
Other Oriented Values of Culture
This shows the relationship between individuals and the society. The relationship influences marketing practices. If the society values collective activity decisions will be taken in a group.It gives rise to following questions which affect consumer behaviour:
Individual/collective: Whether individual initiation has more value than collective activity?
Romantic orientation: This depicts whether the communication is more effective which emphasises courtship or otherwise. In many countries, a romantic theme is more successful.
Adult/child theme: Is family life concentrated round children or adults? What role do children play in decision-making? Masculine/Feminine: Whether the society is made dominant or women dominant or balanced.
Competitive/Cooperation: Whether competition leads to success. This is achieved by forming alliances with others.
Youth/age: Are prestige roles assigned to younger or older members of the society. American society is youth oriented and Korean is age oriented. Decisions are taken by mature people in Korea.
Cleanliness: If a culture lays too much stress on cleanliness, there is scope for the sale of beauty creams, soaps, deodorants, insecticides, washing powder, vacuum cleaner, etc. In western countries, a lot of emphasis is placed on this aspect and perfumes and deodorants are widely used.
Performance Status: A status-oriented society cares for higher standards of living, and chooses quality goods and established brand names and high-price items. This is true for the United States, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and most of the Arabian countries.
In performance-oriented societies, where rewards and prestige is based on an individuals performance, less importance is given to brand names. Products which function equally well and may not be big brand names are used. Germans do not give the same amount of emphasis to brand names. The marketeers adopt strategies accordingly.
Tradition/change: Tradition-oriented societies stick to the old product and resist innovation or new techniques. In traditional societies, there is less scope for new products, and old traditional products are in greater demand. In some societies, which are upwardly mobile,consumers are looking for modern methods, new products, new models and new techniques.
Risk-taking/security: An individual who is in secure position and takes a risk can be either considered venture some or fool hardy. This depends on the culture of the society. For developing, new entrepreneurs risk taking is a must. It leads to new product development,new advertising themes and new channels of distribution. Security-oriented societies have little chances of development and innovation.
Problem solving/fatalist: A society can be optimistic and have a problem-solving attitude or, be inactive and depend on fate. This has marketing implications on the registering of complaints when consumers are dissatisfied with the purchase of the products. Advertising plays an important part and gives guidance to the consumer, and removes these doubts to a great extent.
Nature: There are differences in attitude over nature and its preservation. Consumers stress on packing materials that are recyclable and environment friendly. Some countries give great importance to stop environmental pollution and to recycling of products.
Companies like P&G, Colgate-Palmolive captured a great extent of the market by offering products which are less harmful to the environment. They also use ingredients in the products which are not harmful in any way.
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Consumer Behaviour Tutorial
Psychographic Or Lifestyle Segmentation
Concept Of Culture & Subculture
Cultural Variations In Non-verbal Communications
Family Buying Influences, Family Life Cycle And Buying Roles
Diffusion Of Innovation
Personality And Self Concept
Motivation And Involvement
Information Processing Learning And Memory
Attitude Development And Alternate Evaluation In Buying
Search And Evaluation
Purchasing Process And Outlet Selection
Purchase Behaviour (situational Factors)
Models Of Consumer Behaviour
Consumerism (public Policy And Consumer Protection)
Organisational Buying Behaviour
Changing Consumer Behaviour
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