It is carried out to find what the customer does to fulfill has consumption needs. It involves the description of activities with respect to components of what, where, why, how, how much in what situation, and also for instance “what” (one of the components). This what may mean which product or brand.
“Where” : Where to purchase, from which store, which city, which place?
“Why” : To consume himself, or to give as a present?
“How” : In what manner? To purchase by going himself, by ordering, by cash/
credit, etc.?
“How much” : In what quantity, in bulk or in small amounts?
“What situation” : Emergent situation; e.g., medicines, umbrella, etc.
“Who” : Who is to purchase, husband, wife, children or jointly?

Methods of collecting primary data
There are a number of ways in which primary data can be collected. These can be classified as under:
Can be open ended, close ended, alternative provided, direct questions, indirect questions.
Experimentation, surveys and interviews.
It is a self-administered process, whereby the respondent himself reads the questions and answers without the help of an interviewer. They can broadly be classified under four types of questions. These can be on the basis of structure and disguise, and methods of communication.

  1. Structure Undisguised: The question is framed before hand and is structured. It is undisguised in the sense that the respondent knows why the question is being asked. For example “Do you feel family planning measures should be given more importance?”
  2. Unstructured Undisguised: “What do you feel about family planning in India?”
  3. Unstructured-Disguised: These questions are for the respondents who hesitate, feel shy, or are threatened to answer the questions. This leads to motivational research. This is also known as projective technique, where the questions are designed to tap the underlying motives of the individuals despite their hiding them. This has been discussed under projective techniques.
  4. Structured designed questionnaire: These are least used and they are structured.

They do not have the flexibility of the unstructured questionnaire.
Besides this, we also have attitude measurements which can be done by scaling techniques. Attitude is a behavioural disposition of the structure of human perception. In rating scales, respondents indicate their degree of agreements or disagreements. There are various types of scales:

  1. Numerical scales
  2. Comparative scales
  3. Non-comparative scales
  4. Method of comparison
  5. Constant sum scales There are also some specific scales for measuring attitudes, and there are
  6. Likert scale +
  7. Semantic differential scales
  8. Rank order rating scales. We shall discuss the last three in brief.

Likert scale
This scale consists of an equal number of agreement or disagreement choices on either side of a neutral choice. A series of statements are given to find out the attitude of the respondents.
This can be done on a five- or a seven-point scale.
Example: The respondent has to agree or disagree, and the degree of agreement or disagreement has to be marked on the scale.

  1. Coca Cola is the best drink for teenagers.
  2. Coca Cola is very sweet and contains sugar.
  3. Coca Cola gives a good fizz.
  4. Coca Cola is very refreshing.
  5. Coca Cola is a universal drink.
  6. Coca Cola has a very good flavour.

This scale gives the option to the respondent for their responses. The responses can be combined to produce a summated score, and this is done by giving the score of +2 +1, –1 –2, to the five options, so that the overall attitudes can be measured.

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Consumer Behaviour Topics