They explain how consumers may combine their beliefs about product attributes to form their attitude about various brand alternatives. A brand which forms the best attitude is chosen.
Consumers go through a standard hierarchy of effects sequence (awareness-interest-desire action).
Attitude-Towards-Object (ATO) Model
Belief about the presence or absence of those attributes in brand alternatives. Information on their combined effect in alternative evaluation.
Process: To choose between the 3 cars (Premier, Ambassador and Maruti). First the attributes are chosen then the weight ages are assigned to them, then the importance of these ratings are decided on a 1 to 5 scale as shown, then a × b gives the value for each attribute.
This is then added for all the attributes, and the final score gives the ratings of the car for the
choice. Maruti = Best car
Premier = Average
Ambassador = Worst of the lot
This model fails to consider that often consumer attitude does not equate with behavior.
Heuristicsrules that guides the search into areas of high probability.
Basic Choice Heuristics
Used for mainly limited problem solving and routine response behavior.Broadly speaking, there are five basic choice heuristics as shown: Most consumer try to satisfy their purchase goals instead of optimizing them. Most products require low to mild involvement.
Suppose you want to choose a refrigerator out of the three shown in the example below. Choices can be made by applying various heuristics as shown in Table below
Affect referral heuristics
Consumer uses earlier experiences and memory in brand evaluation. Holistic approach is used,e.g., for salt, tea, cigarettes. This is the simplest of all rules. Brand that fulfilled earlier requirement will be chosen.
This is negative in nature. Many brand alternatives are available with distinct attributes.
Consumers set minimum cut-offs on each attribute, which each brand alternative must possess to prevent rejection. Minimum cut off is three. Then Kelvinator will be dropped, i.e., 2/10 oneconomy. Weighs negative information.
This is positive in nature. Brand attribute scoring the highest on most important attribute according to the customer is chosen. Godrej will be chosen. It scores five on low maintenance.
Linear compensatory heuristics
Consumer permits strength of a particular brand attribute to compensate for the weakness of another attribute. Choose the best Allwyn. It scores the maximum of 46 marks, and if linear compensatory heuristics is used, the automatic choice will be Allwyn.
Used infrequently, also, sets minimum cut-off points for every brand attribute. But here only salient brand attribute (on basis of weights) is considered. Brand must clear minimum cut-off on dominant attributes.Godrej clears the minimum criteria of three points. It has at least three points for each attribute, and it also scores the maximum of five points on the most salient attribute, that is low maintenance. So, if disjunctive heuristics is applied. Godrej will be chosen. Similarly, by giving weight ages to various brands and scoring on 1 to 5 scale, brands can be chosen. This applies to extended problem solving where the involvement is high, the risk is high, cost is high and a rational choice is to be made.
Choice for Personal Telephone Service Decisions Disjunctive
rule: Selected the one that excelled in at least one attribute.
Lexicographic rule: Chose that one which ranked highest on the most important their telephone.
Affect referral rule: Everything the company does is outstanding. Therefore, I bought their telephone. Marketers may modify their products according to consumer ratings.
Marketers may modify consumer beliefs through proper communication.For competitive evaluation alter the consumer belief, either by running down competitive products, or by a positive role to give new focus on neglected attributes. This can also be done by manipulating the product.
The acid test for marketing effectiveness is whether the consumer is led to a practical purchase action or not.
Consumer Behaviour Related Interview Questions
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Consumer Behaviour Tutorial
Psychographic Or Lifestyle Segmentation
Concept Of Culture & Subculture
Cultural Variations In Non-verbal Communications
Family Buying Influences, Family Life Cycle And Buying Roles
Diffusion Of Innovation
Personality And Self Concept
Motivation And Involvement
Information Processing Learning And Memory
Attitude Development And Alternate Evaluation In Buying
Search And Evaluation
Purchasing Process And Outlet Selection
Purchase Behaviour (situational Factors)
Models Of Consumer Behaviour
Consumerism (public Policy And Consumer Protection)
Organisational Buying Behaviour
Changing Consumer Behaviour
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