It is a macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general. It is based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which states that a human being has a variety of needs and,these can be classified as primary and secondary needs or, lower-order and higher-order needs.Once a need is fulfilled, human beings, try to fulfil other needs. This is usually done in hierarchy, which can be classified as under:
These are the very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep, sex, etc. When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are alleviated, we may think about other things.
These have to do with establishing stability and consistency in a chaotic world. These needs are mostly psychological in nature. We need the security of a home and family. However, if a family is dysfunction, i.e., an abused child - cannot move to the next level as she is continuously fearful for her safety. Love and a sense of belonging are postponed until she feel safe.
Love and needs of belonging
Humans have [in varying degrees of intensity] a strong desire to affiliate by joining groups such as societies, clubs, professional associations, churches and religious groups etc. There is a universal need to feel love and acceptance by others.
There are essentially two types of esteem needs:self-esteem resulting from competence or mastery of a task; and the esteem and good opinion of other people.
The need for self-actualisation
Ma slow theory of motivation proposes that people who have all their "lower order" needs met progress towards the fulfillment their potential. Typically this can include the pursuit of knowledge, peace, esthetic experiences, self-fulfillment, oneness with God, nirvana, enlightenment etc. So ultimately this is all to do with the desire for self transcendence.
McGuire’s Psychological Motives
The classification of motives by McGuire is more specific and used more in marketing.
Need for consistency
People try to buy things which are consistent with their liking and taste. A sophisticated person will be consistent in his choice of colors of clothing, paintings on the wall, color of rooms.He would prefer sophisticated instead of flashy objects.
Need to attribute causation
We often attribute the cause of a favorable or unfavorable outcome to ourselves or, to some outside element. You can buy shoes by your choice and may not like them. It can be attributed to you. If you buy a dress by the advise of your friends and companions, and do not like it, the causes are attributed to other factors.
Need to categories
The objects are categorized in a number of ways. The most popular is the price. Cars can be classified around R's. 2 lakhs or above Rs. 5.5 lakhs. Many products are categorized at 499.00to keep them under Rs. 500. This is practiced in shoes mainly by Bata and others.
Need for cues
These are hints or symbols that affect our feelings, attitudes, impressions, etc. For instance,clothing can be a cue to adopt a desired lifestyle. The use of products can be enhanced by providing proper cues to the purchasers.
Need for independence
Consumers like to own products which give them a feeling of independence, symbols like white bird flying may predict one to be free and independent.
Need for novelty
We sometimes want to be different in certain respects and want to be conspicuous. This is evident in impulse purchasing or unplanned purchasing. We go in for novelty products, novelty experiences. A different kind of travel with many novelties offered by a traveling agency.
Need for self-expression
We want to identify ourselves and go in for products that let others know about us. We may buy a suit not only for warmth but also for expressing our identity to others.
Need for ego defense
When our identity is threatened or when we need to project a proper image, we use products in our defense. Deodorants are used for ego defense. Mouthwash for fresh breath or, false teeth to protect our image. We use hair dye to look younger better, etc. We rely on well-known brands to give a correct social image of ourselves.
Need for assertion
These needs are fulfilled by engaging in those kind of activities that bring self-esteem and esteem in the eyes of others. We can buy an expensive car which may be for esteem but, if it does not perform well, we tend to complain bitterly. Individuals with a strong need for self esteem tend to complain more with the dissatisfaction of the product.
Need for reinforcement
When we buy a product which is appreciated by others, it reinforces our views, our behavior,our choice and we go in for repeat purchases. More products can be sold if their reinforce mentis greater by their purchases.
Need for affiliation
We like to use product which are used by those whom we get affiliated to. If one’s friend appreciates and wears a certain brand then one also tries to use the same brands or objects for affiliation. It is the need to develop mutually helpful and satisfying relationships with others.Marketeers use the affiliation themes in advertisements which arouse emotions and sentiments in the minds of the consumers for their children and families.
Need for modeling
We try to copy our heroes and our parents and those we admire. We base our behavior on thebehaviour of others. Marketer’s use these themes for selling their product, i.e., “Lux is used by heroines”. “Sportsmen rely on boost for their energy” and such captions are used regularly and repeatedly.
Utilitarian and Hedonic Needs
Utilitarian needs are to achieve some practical benefit such as durability, economy, warmth that define product performance. Hedonic needs achieve pleasure from the product they are associated with emotions and fantasies is derived from consuming a product.
A Hedonic need is more experiential The desire to be more masculine or feminine etc.Hedonic advertising appeals are more symbolic and emotional. For utilitarian shoppers the acquiring of goods is a task whereas for Hedonic shoppers it is a pleasurable activity. Shopping Malls may be considered as gathering places and consumers/buyers derive pleasure from these activities besides the selection of goods.
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Consumer Behaviour Tutorial
Psychographic Or Lifestyle Segmentation
Concept Of Culture & Subculture
Cultural Variations In Non-verbal Communications
Family Buying Influences, Family Life Cycle And Buying Roles
Diffusion Of Innovation
Personality And Self Concept
Motivation And Involvement
Information Processing Learning And Memory
Attitude Development And Alternate Evaluation In Buying
Search And Evaluation
Purchasing Process And Outlet Selection
Purchase Behaviour (situational Factors)
Models Of Consumer Behaviour
Consumerism (public Policy And Consumer Protection)
Organisational Buying Behaviour
Changing Consumer Behaviour
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