Information Processing Learning And Memory Introduction Consumer Behaviour

Information Processing in Consumer Behaviour

Consumers process information from the stimulus they receive in various forms. This processing helps to buy products of their need and liking. The 5 major ways they use for information derived from their environment. These are:

  1. They stand and evaluate products and services.
  2. They attempt to justify previous product choices.
  3. To decide whether to buy or postpone the decision.
  4. To satisfy a need from the products available from the market.
  5. To serve as a reminder to purchase products which must be replenished (soap,beverage and other consumable items.)

Information processing is not the end result but a process which is followed by the consumers. The basic components of information processing is shown in a framework. The basic components can be arranged into 4 groupings or the 4S:

  • Stimuli that serves as a raw material to be processed the receptors are hunger.
  • Pangs and the 5 senses of test, touch, smell, vision and hearing.
  • Stages of processing activities as shown in the diagram exposure, sensory processes and attention.
  • Situation and consumer characteristics that which can influence the nature of these activities.

Executive System which regulates the type and intensity of processing activities
The figure shows the consumer characteristics and stimulant characteristics which regulates the type and intensity of processing stimulation are units of energy such as light and sound that excite our sensory receptors.

The acquisition process has the elements shown under it. The sensation may be thought as electric impulse the perceptual coding is done in the mind to the prospects in the forms of symbols, words or images.

All the information gathered is integrated or put together to get the outcome. The outcome may be to purchase, or to postpone the purchase for the time being, or to purchase and experience the product and decide to switch to other brand in the future. The information processed by the stimuli, acquisition, sensation and by encoding goes to the memory which provides a feed able to acquisition, perceptual encoding and to integration of all information.

Information processing is strongly influenced by consumer characteristics. These can be consumer’s motives and involvement.

Information processing activities do not act independently of each other. Each activity needs to be coordinated and integrated. The vast majority of information processing activities are internal to the consumer therefore they cannot be observed. What can be observed is the number of stores visited and the brands purchased.

Situational characteristics play an important role. It can be information overload or may provide very little information.

Types of Learned Behavior
Almost all types of behavior we exhibit has been learned.
(1) Physical behavior. The way we walk and talk and conduct ourselves and interact with others. Some adopt the behavior of celebrities, film stars and is termed modeling.
(2) Symbolic learning and problem solving. Symbols convey meanings. Symbols and brand names communicate. These are Kodak, Mac Donald's, Deltas etc. Problem solving also by thinking and insight. Thinking involves mental manipulation of symbols to form various combinations and meanings. This leads to insight which is the new understanding of relationship involved in the problem. These factors allow consumers to mentally evaluate the product without purchasing them. A person may evaluate a burglar alarm for car. They realize that at home it is parked in a locked garage and in the office in a secured parking. Hence, the burglar alarm is not required and postpones his decision of buying.
(3) Affective learning. This comes by experience and by using the products. One learns about the product and this goes into his memory.

The elements of learning

  1. What are the purpose or intention of buying.
  2. Cues are weak stimuli not strong enough to effect a purchase, but provides directionto motivated activity. These cues may be color, decision etc.
  3. Response. To buy or not to buy.
  4. Reinforcement. This leads to repeat purchase and confirms the performance to the product.

A-representation-Memory

Characteristics-of-memory systems


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