Culture has several important characteristics:
Material culture influences technology and how it brings cultural changes, i.e.,use of telephones, mobile phones, television, clothing styles, fashions and gives the marketeers achance to improve the product, packing, etc. to meet the needs of the consumer, etc.
The Functions of Culture
We have already seen that culture influences the behaviour of individuals. It provides a framework within which individuals and households build their pattern of living or exhibit their lifestyles.
Norms are the boundaries that culture sets on the behaviour. There are rules that encourage or prohibit certain behaviour in specific situations. Norms are derived from cultural values, which are widely told beliefs that specify what is desirable and what is not. When these rules are violated, it results in sanctions or penalties which are either disapproved of by the society, and in extreme cases the individual violating the norms are banished or ostracized from the society. Most individuals obey norms because it is natural to obey them. Culture outlines many business norms, family norms, behaviour norms, etc. How we greet people? How close one should stand to others while conducting business? The dress we wear and any other patterns of behaviour.
Culture keeps changing slowly over time; and is not static. Changes takes place due torapid technologies. In case of emergency, war, or natural calamities, marketeers and managers must understand the existing culture as well as the changing culture and culture of the country where the goods are to be marketed. Major companies have adapted themselves tointernational culture and are accepted globally. Coca Cola is sold all over the world. Procter Gamble and other companies give cross cultural training to their employees. By making cross-culture mistakes, many companies have difficulty in pushing their products, for example, (i) Coca Cola had to withdraw its 2-litrebottle from Spain, because it did not fit in the local refrigerator; (ii) Many countries are very traditional and do not like women displayed on the products. This acts as a detriment to businessin those countries.
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Consumer Behaviour Tutorial
Psychographic Or Lifestyle Segmentation
Concept Of Culture & Subculture
Cultural Variations In Non-verbal Communications
Family Buying Influences, Family Life Cycle And Buying Roles
Diffusion Of Innovation
Personality And Self Concept
Motivation And Involvement
Information Processing Learning And Memory
Attitude Development And Alternate Evaluation In Buying
Search And Evaluation
Purchasing Process And Outlet Selection
Purchase Behaviour (situational Factors)
Models Of Consumer Behaviour
Consumerism (public Policy And Consumer Protection)
Organisational Buying Behaviour
Changing Consumer Behaviour
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