Computer Components - Computer Fundamentals

What are the basic components of a computer? Explain?

Computers are categorized into different types, though they are different in size all computers follow the same logical structure and whenever the task is given by the user, it undergoes five basic operations for converting the input data into output data which is useful to their users. The following are the basic operations performed by the computer:

S.No. Operation Description
1 Take Input The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system.
2 Store Data Saving data and instructions so that they are available for processing as and when required.
3 Processing Data Performing arithmetic, and logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information.
4 Output Information The process of producing useful information or results for the user, such as a printed report or visual display.
5 Control the workflow Directs the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.


Input Unit

This unit contains input devices with which we enter data into the computer. This unit acts as an interface between the user and the computer. These input devices translate the information that is to be understandable by the computer.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU is considered as the heart of the computer. All data processing operations are performed by the CPU. It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program). It controls the operation performed by all parts of the computer.

CPU itself possess the following three components −

  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • Memory Unit
  • Control Unit

Output Unit

The output unit consists of devices with which we get the output result from the computer. This unit also acts as an interface between the computer and the users. Output devices translate the information and gives output which could be easily understandable by the users.

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