Computer Applications - Computer Fundamentals

Discuss the application of computers in various sectors?

In this chapter, we will discuss about the application of computers in various fields.

Business

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In today’s world, it is easy to explore the various job opportunities with the knowledge of computers. A computer performs its applications with high speed, diligence, accuracy, reliability, or versatility which has made it an integrated part in all business organizations.

Computer is used in business organizations to perform −

  • Payroll calculations
  • Budgeting
  • Sales analysis
  • Financial forecasting
  • Managing employee database
  • Maintenance of stocks, etc.

Banking

computer_banking

Today, banking sector is totally dependent on computers.

Banks provide the following facilities with the help of computers −

  • Online accounting facility, which has become mandatory for every individual. This includes checking current balance, making deposits and overdrafts, checking interest charges, shares, and trustee records.
  • With the rise of ATM machines which are automated completely makes it even easier for customers to make transactions with banks.

Insurance

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With the help of computer insurance companies will keep all types of client records up-to-date. So, it becomes very easy while referring when required. Insurance companies, finance houses, and stock broking firms are widely using computers for their concerns.

Insurance companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing −

  • Procedure to continue with policies
  • Starting date of the policies
  • Next due installment of a policy
  • Maturity date
  • nterests due
  • Survival benefits
  • Bonus

Education

computer_education

In today’s world education is considered incomplete without the knowledge of computers. To exist in this highly competitive world, a basic knowledge of computers is essential for success. The computer helps in providing a lot of facilities in the education system.

  • The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education).
  • CBE includes control, delivery, and evaluation of learning.
  • As computer education has become mandatory, it is increasing rapidly the number of computer students.
  • Various methods have been implemented in education system so that educational institutions can use a computer to educate the students.
  • It is used to prepare a database about student’s performance and you can analyse the students’ performance on this basis.

Marketing

computer_marketing

In marketing sector, uses of the computer are following −

  • Advertising − With the help of computers, advertising professionals can create art and design graphics for the ads, write and revise copy, and print and disseminate ads with the aim of selling more products.
  • Home Shopping − Home shopping has been made possible through the use of computerized catalogues that provide access to product information and helps in direct entry of orders to be filled by the customers.

Healthcare

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Computers have become mandatory in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. They are used in hospitals to keep the patient’s record and medicines. It is also used in different sections like scanning and also helps in diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, ultrasounds and CT scans, etc. are also done by computerized machines. With the arrival of computers complex things have made easy.

Following are some major fields of health care in which computers are used.

  • Diagnostic System − Computers are used to collect data and find out the cause of illness.
  • Lab-diagnostic System − All diagnostic tests can be done and the reports are prepared by the computer.
  • Patient Monitoring System − These are used to check the patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG, etc.
  • Pharma Information System − Computer helps to check drug labels, expiry dates, harmful side effects, etc.
  • Surgery − Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery.

Engineering Design

computer_engineering

Computers are extensively used for engineering purpose.

One of the major areas is CAD (Computer Aided Design) that provides creation and modification of images. Some of the fields are −

  • Structural Engineering − Requires stress and strain analysis for design of ships, buildings, budgets, airplanes, etc.
  • Industrial Engineering − Computers deal with design, implementation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials, and equipment.
  • Architectural Engineering − Computers are quite useful in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings. With the use of computers it has become very easy for people who are in the field of architectural engineering as it reduced paper work.

Military

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Computers are widely used in defence. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons, etc. Military also employs computerized control systems. Some military areas where a computer has been used are −

  • Missile Control
  • Military Communication
  • Military Operation and Planning
  • Smart Weapons

Communication

computer_communi

As we have mentioned earlier that today’s world computers play a major role. Communication is a way to convey a message, an idea, a picture, or speech that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant. It has become very important for every individual to hone communication skills. Some main areas in this category are −

  • E-mail
  • Chatting
  • Usenet
  • FTP
  • Telnet
  • Video-conferencing

Government

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Over the years pending projects, files, registers need to be updated in the government sector. It takes years to work out for this. So, with the help of computers services in government has totally changed. Computers play an important role in government services. Some major fields in this category are −

  • Budgets
  • Sales tax department
  • Income tax department
  • Computation of male/female ratio
  • Computerization of voters lists
  • Computerization of PAN card
  • Weather forecasting

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