Application Packaging Interview Questions & Answers

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Application Packaging Interview Questions & Answers

Searching for a new job? Make your job hunt success with prior preparation for the interview. If you are looking for application packaging jobs, you are at right place. There are wide opportunities from many famous companies over the globe. Usually these application packaging files are found in the form of binary files which are supplied by the developers that combine together all the specific files to construct an application to the client. So, the candidates who are seeking job in application packaging can move further in their profession. Wisdom jobs provide you with Application Packaging interview questions that assist you in giving the best in your final interviews.

Application Packaging Interview Questions

Application Packaging Interview Questions
    1. Question 1. What Is Application Packaging?

      Answer :

      Process of creating an installer for an application is called application packaging. Usually in it binary files provided by developers are packaged to form a package. The Main difference between packaging and re-packaging is that the source files does not come in the form of package in packaging where as in re-packaging they come in a form of a package, which might be MSI or legacy package (such as executable, batch files, etc).

    2. Question 2. What Is Application Repackaging?

      Answer :

      Repackaging (Customized Installation) is the process of capturing the changes made by an Installation Program (Package) and it is customized to support company standards and distribution methods.

      It is not necessary to do setup capture to call it repackaging, even creating must files or is files can be called application repackaging.

    3. Question 3. What Are The Steps Of Repackaging?

      Answer :

      1. Review the packaging requirements (User Requirement Review).
      2. Analyze the vendor package (Tech Review).
      3. Repackage the application (Setup capture).
      4. Customize the package (Scripting).
      5. Test the package (Testing & UAT).
      6. Release the package to end users (Deployment).

    4. Question 4. Why Repackaging Is Required & What Are The Problems In Legacy Installation?

      Answer :

      Most common reasons for Re-packaging are as follows:

      1. Customized Installation.
      2. Reduce Support Costs.
      3. Self Repair.
      4. Source Resiliency.
      5. Unattended Install.

      The problems with Legacy Installations:

      1. High Support Costs.
      2. Fragile Installs & uninstalls.
      3. Difficult & labor Intensive to deploy.

    5. Question 5. Name Few Msi Packaging Tools?

      Answer :

      1. Wise for Windows Installer.
      2. Wise Package Studio.
      3. Install Shield.
      4. SMS Installer.
      5. Marimba.
      6. WIX (It cannot be used for re-packaging).
      7. Sharpdevelop.
      8. Visual Studio.

    6. Question 6. Name Few Msi Re-packaging Tools?

      Answer :

      1. Wise Package Studio
      2. Install Shield
      3. SMS Installer
      4. Marimba.

    7. Question 7. Name Few Deployment Tools?

      Answer :

      •  Radia
      •  CA DSM
      •  Altiris Client Management Suite
      •  Altiris Notification Server Console
      •  Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS)

    8. Question 8. What Is Windows Installer?

      Answer :

      Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer) is a built-in Operating System service for Installing and Managing Applications. It provides a standard method for developing, customizing, installing and updating applications. It is an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on modern Microsoft Windows systems. The installation information, and often the files themselves, are packaged in installation packages, loosely relational databases structured as OLE COM Structured Storages and commonly known as “MSI files”, from their default file extension. Windows Installer contains significant changes from its predecessor, Setup API.

      New features include a GUI framework and automatic generation of the uninstallation sequence. It is positioned as an alternative to stand-alone executable installer frameworks such as older versions of InstallShield and Wise Package Studio (later versions of both supports Windows Installer) and NSIS.

    9. Question 9. Benefits Of The Windows Installer?

      Answer :

      • Advertising
      • Installation on Demand
      • Repair (Self-healing)
      • Rollback (Transactional operations)
      • Managed Shared Resources

    10. Question 10. Msi Installation Mechanism (background Mechanism)?

      Answer :

      Acquisition: The Installer first installs the feature and then progresses through the actions specified in the sequence tables of the installation database. These actions query the installation database and generate a script that gives a step-by-step procedure for performing the installation.

      Execution: The installer passes the information to a process with elevated privileges and runs the script.

      Rollback: If an installation is unsuccessful, the installer restores the original state of the computer. When the installer processes the installation script, it simultaneously generates a rollback script. In addition to the rollback script, the installer saves a copy of every file it deletes during the installation. These files are kept in a hidden,system directory. Once the installation is complete, the rollback script and the saved files are deleted.

    11. Question 11. What Is A Msi?

      Answer :

      MSI is “Microsoft Windows Installer”. It is an installation, in the form of a single file. It is actually a database that contains several tables (80+). Each of these tables contains instructions and set-up information.

    12. Question 12. Structure Of Msi?

      Answer :

      • Products (Collection of Features)
      • Features (Collection of Components)
      • Components (Collection of files and Registries)

    13. Question 13. What Is Product?

      Answer :

      A single, installed, working program (or set of programs) is a product. A product is identified by a unique GUID (the ProductCode property). A product is not the same as a package: a single MSI package might install multiple different products. For example, an MSI might install French and English versions of a program, each of which is a different product.

    14. Question 14. What Is Feature?

      Answer :

      Features are buckets for Components. Windows Installer configuration commands operate only on Features (installing, advertising, Uninstalling). Self-healing, installon- demand and user profile fix-up operate at the Feature level.

    15. Question 15. What Is Component?

      Answer :

      Components are collections of resources that are always installed or removed as a unit from a user's system. A resource can be a file, registry key, shortcut, or anything else that may be installed. Every component is assigned a unique component code GUID.

    16. Question 16. What Is Self-healing?

      Answer :

      When an MSI-based application is launched (by clicking on an advertised shortcut or file type association), Windows Installer checks the existence of key path items.

      If there is a mismatch between the current system state and the value specified in the MSI package (e.g., a key file or registry is missing), then the related feature is reinstalled. This process is also known as self-healing or self-repair.

    17. Question 17. What Is The Difference Between Self-healing And Repair?

      Answer :

      Self Heal and Repair are two different concepts in Windows Installer which people many times consider to be the same thing however there is difference in these two.

      Self Heal is triggered by advertised shortcuts, or other advertising information in the package which eventually Repairs the application.

      When the application is launched by advertised shortcut, it checks for all the key paths of the Current Feature, if any of the key paths is missing it will launch Repair.

      Note that if there are multiple features then it will not check the missing key paths of the other features, but only the feature of which the advertised shortcut is launched.

      Repair of an MSI can be triggered by:

      • Repair button in Add/Remove programs
      • Giving the command line msiexec /f{other option} {MSI name}
      • Self Heal by advertised shortcut or other advertising information
      • Active setup

      Once the repair of the package is triggered, even with Self Heal, then the whole of the MSI is reinstalled. Then it does not see that only the feature which triggered the self heal should be repaired, but the whole MSI, by which I mean, all its features are reinstalled.

    18. Question 18. What Is Registry, Tell The Structure & Types Of Registry?

      Answer :

      The Registry is a single place for storing information about the Windows OS (Hardware & Software):

      • Root Keys / Subtrees
      • Subkeys
      • Hives
      • Entries

      Types of Registry keys:

      1. Machine-Specific (HKCR, HKLM, HKCC, HKU)
      2. User-Specific (HKCU, HKU)

      Types of Registry Root keys:

      1. HKEY_CLASS_ROOT (HKCR)
      2. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM)
      3. HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG (HKCC)
      4. HKEY_CURRENT_USER (HKCU)
      5. HKEY_USERS (HKU)

    19. Question 19. What Are Shortcuts & Types?

      Answer :

      Shortcuts are the entry points to the applications installed on the system which is normally points to a file:

      • Advertised (File should be Installed by the Application).
      • Non Advertised (File that is not part of Installation. It is also called Command Line shortcuts).

       

    20. Question 20. What Are Ini File & Its Format?

      Answer :

      INI files are plain-text files that contain configuration information. "INI" stands for:

      initialization.
      [Section]
      Keyname=value.

    21. Question 21. What Are Services & Its Types?

      Answer :

      A windows service is a background process which is loaded by the Service Control Manager of the OS.

      1. Win32 Service (Win32 services are the services which is running by the executable file installed by the Application).
      2. System or Kernel Services (Kernel services are the services which are used by the OS to communicate to the hardware devices).

    22. Question 22. Where Is Service Information Stored?

      Answer :

      Most of the Service information are stored under the windows registry hive “HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetName of the Service”.

    23. Question 23. In The Msi, Which Tables Contain Information About The Service Details?

      Answer :

      • Service Install (Service Details)
      • Service Control (Controlling the service during Installation & Un Installation)

    24. Question 24. What Is Odbc & Dsn And Its Types?

      Answer :

      ODBC means Open Database Connectivity. The purpose of ODBC is to allow the user to access data from any application. The layer between the application and the DBMS called DSN.

      • System DSN (DSN will be available for all users)
      • User DSN (DSN will be available for that particular user)

    25. Question 25. What Is File Association?

      Answer :

      The Windows operating system recognizes file types and associates them with programs based on their file extension. A file that carries no extension or no associated program is called Orphaned.

    26. Question 26. What Is Environment Variable & Its Types?

      Answer :

      Environment Variables are the variables that are set by the Operating System & Application:

      • System Variable (Available for all users)
      • User Variable (Available for that particular user)

    27. Question 27. What Is Property & Types Of Properties, Give Some Examples?

      Answer :

      Properties are global variables that the Microsoft Windows Installer uses during an installation.

      Private: The installer can be use only internally (values can’t be changed during the run time).

      Manufacture, ProductCode, ProductID, ProductName, ProductVersion ……

      Public: The installer can be uses both internally & externally (values can be changed during the run time also).

      INSTALLLEVEL, ….

      Restricted Public: The user can’t change the value both internally & externally due to security purposes. ALLUSERS, REBOOT, REINSTALLMODE.

    28. Question 28. What Is Merge Module?

      Answer :

      Merge modules are a mechanism in Windows Installer that allows companies to prepackage and share standard component definitions. Merge modules are used to deliver shared code, files, resources, registry entries and setup logic to applications as a single compound file.

    29. Question 29. Name Few Merge Module Tables?

      Answer :

      •  ModuleSignature,
      •  ModuleComponents,
      •  ModuleDependency,
      •  ModuleExclusion,
      •  ModuleIgnore,
      •  ModuleSubstitution,
      •  ModuleAdminUISequence,
      •  ModuleAdminExecuteSequence,
      •  ModuleConfiguration,
      •  ModuleAdvtUISequence,
      •  ModuleAdvtExecuteSequence,
      •  ModuleInstallUISequence,
      •  ModuleInstallExecuteSequence.

    30. Question 30. Detail The Background Mechanism Of Merge Module?

      Answer :

      If there are a number of applications that require a specifically configured component, it would be possible to create a merge module that installs and

      configures that component. That merge module could then be added to the installation packages of each product that required that particular component.

      This saves the effort of having to individually add the necessary files, registry entries, and other components to every installation. It also saves time if updates are needed, as instead of updating the installations for all five applications, only the merge module is updated, and the installations only need to be rebuilt.

    31. Question 31. How To Give Permission For Files, Folders & Registry Keys In Msi?

      Answer :

      In the MSI, we can give permissions through Lock Permission table. But using subinacl.exe custom action is the best way to set permissions.

    32. Question 32. How To Give Permission For Files, Folders & Registry Keys Through Vb Script & What Is The Syntax?

      Answer :

      We can give permission for files & folders through VB Script by using the CACLS & XCACLS commands:

      1. CACLs should only run on NTFS partitions.
      2. CACLS – Changes Access Control ListS
      3. “Cacls <file name> [/T] [/E] [/C] [/G user: perm] [/R user [...]] [/P user: perm [...]]
      4. [/D user [...]] “
      5. /T Changes ACLs of specified files in the current directory and subdirectories
      6. /E Edit ACL instead of replacing it
      7. /C Continue (ignore) access denied errors
      8. /G user: perm where access rights granted can be: R C F (read, change, full control)
      9. /R user Revoke specified user's access rights (only valid with /E)
      10. /P user: perm Replace specified user's access rights. Permission can be: N R C F (none, read, change, full control)
      11. /D user Deny specified user access

      E.g. “cacls c:myfile.txt /E /G <user name>: F”

    33. Question 33. How To Install Only One Particular Feature During The Installation Through Command Line?

      Answer :

      msiexec /i <msi> ADDLOCAL=<Feature Name>

    34. Question 34. How To Disable Arp (add/remove Programs) Details During The Insallation Through Command Line, Tell Some Arp Properties?

      Answer :

      msiexec /i <msi> ARPSYSTEMCOMPONENT=1

      Following entries are various ARP properties:

      a) ARPAUTHORIZEDCDFPREFIX
      b) ARPCOMMENTS
      c) ARPCONTACT
      d) ARPINSTALLLOCATION
      e) ARPNOMODIFY
      f) ARPNOREMOVE
      g) ARPNOREPAIR
      h) ARPPRODUCTICON
      i) ARPREADME
      j) ARPSIZE
      k) ARPSYSTEMCOMPONENT
      l) ARPURLINFOABOUT
      m) ARPURLUPDATEINFO

    35. Question 35. What Is Advertisement?

      Answer :

      It means that, the Availability of an application to users or others with out actually the full Installation. There are two types of Advertising

      Assigning : 

      An Application appears (shortcuts, files & registries) to a user or others, when an Application is “assigned”. When the user tries to open, it is installed upon demand.

      Publishing : 

      No Entry points appear to a user or others, when an Application “published” to the group. It is activated only if the group Application activates the published Application i.e. Installation on Demand.

    36. Question 36. What Is Advertised Feature & Component?

      Answer :

      If a Feature or Component is advertised, only the interfaces required for loading and launching the application are installed to the user or others. If a user activates an advertised interface the installer then proceeds to install the necessary Components & Features.

    37. Question 37. What Is Installation On Demand?

      Answer :

      When a user or application activates an advertised feature or product, the installer proceeds with installation of the needed components.

    38. Question 38. What Is Transform?

      Answer :

      A transform is a windows installer file with the extension (.MST). It should be used along with a MSI to customize or change the installation package without modifying the MSI. The installer can only apply transforms during an installation.

    39. Question 39. What Are The Types Of Transform?

      Answer :

      a) Embedded transform

      Embedded transforms are stored inside the .msi file of the package.

      b) Secured transform

      Secured transforms are stored locally on the user's computer in a location where, on a secure file system, the user does not have write access. Such transforms are cached in this location during the installation or advertisement of the package. During subsequent installation-on-demand or maintenance installations of the package, the installer uses the cached transforms.

      c) Unsecured transform

      Transforms that have not been secured are called unsecured transforms. To apply an unsecured transform, pass the transform file names in the TRANSFORMS property or command line string during the installation.

    40. Question 40. How Many Transform Can Be Created For One Vendor Msi?

      Answer :

      There is no restriction on the numbers of transforms which can be created for one Vendor MSI.

    41. Question 41. How Many Transforms Can Be Supplied In The Command Line?

      Answer :

      There is no restriction on the numbers of transforms which can be supplied in the command line.

    42. Question 42. What Is Custom Action?

      Answer :

      The Microsoft Windows Installer provides many built-in actions for performing the installation process. For some cases the developer writes an action to execute his own installation is called custom action.

    43. Question 43. What Are The Types Of Custom Actions?

      Answer :

      •  DLL file stored in a Binary table stream
      •  DLL file that is installed with a product
      •  EXE file stored in a Binary table stream
      •  EXE file that is installed with a product
      •  Displays a specified error message and returns failure, terminating the installation
      •  EXE file having a path specified by a property value
      •  EXE file having a path referencing a directory
      •  JScript file stored in a Binary table stream
      •  JScript file that is installed with a product
      •  JScript text specified by a property value
      •  JScript text stored in this sequence table
      •  VBScript file stored in a Binary table stream
      •  VBScript file that is installed with a product
      •  VBScript text specified by a property value
      •  VBScript text stored in this sequence table
      •  Property set with formatted text
      •  Directory set with formatted text
      •  Installation of a package nested inside of the first package. See Nested Installation Actions
      •  Installation of a package that resides in the first application’s source tree. See Nested Installation
      •  Actions
      •  Installation of an application that is advertised or already installed. See Nested Installation Actions.

    44. Question 44. What Are The Types Of Sequences In The Custom Actions?

      Answer :

      1. Normal User Interface
      2. Normal Execute Immediate / Deferred
      3. Administrative User Interface
      4. Administrative Execute Immediate / Deferred

    45. Question 45. What Are The Types Of In Script Options In The Custom Actions?

      Answer :

      a) Immediate Execution

      Immediate custom actions, can be sequenced anywhere within any of the sequence tables. It has access to the installation database (read & set installation properties, modify feature & component states, add temporary columns, rows, and tables).

      b) Deferred Execution – User Context

      Deferred custom actions can only be sequenced between the Install Initialize and Install Finalize actions in execute sequence tables. It doesn’t have access to the installation database. Deferred custom actions are not executed immediately. Instead they are scheduled to run later during the execution script. The execution script isn't processed until the Install Execute, Install Execute Again, or Install Finalize action is run. If the Current User doesn’t have the elevated privileges (Custom actions make changes in the system directly), the custom actions should run in Deferred Execution in User Context only.

      c) Rollback only

      This Action should be executed during the Installation of the Rollback script or if the Installation is Unsuccessful.

      d) Commit only

      This Action should be executed during the Installation of the Commit script.

      e) Deferred Execution – System Context

      Deferred custom actions can only be sequenced between the Install Initialize and Install Finalize actions in execute sequence tables. It doesn’t have access to the installation database. Deferred custom actions are not executed immediately. Instead they are scheduled to run later during the execution script. The execution script isn't processed until the Install Execute, Install Execute Again, or Install Finalize action is run. If the Current User have the elevated privileges (Custom actions make changes in the system directly), then it should run in Deferred Execution in System Context only.

    46. Question 46. What Is The Difference Between “immediate Execute / Deferred Execute”?

      Answer :

      • Immediate custom actions, can be sequenced anywhere within any of the sequence tables
      • Deferred custom actions can only be sequenced between the Install Initialize and Install Finalize actions in execute sequence tables
      • Immediate custom actions have access to the Installation database
      • Deferred custom actions doesn’t have access to the Installation database
      • Immediate custom actions can only run in the User Context
      • Deferred custom actions can run both in the context of the user and elevated using the system context.

    47. Question 47. What Is The Difference Between “deferred In System Context / Deferred In User Context”?

      Answer :

      • If the Custom action which installs or modify a file under the INSTALLDIR or Installation should be run in “Deferred in User Context”.
      • If the Custom action which installs or modify the system file directly should be run in “Deferred Execution in System Context”.

    48. Question 48. What Are The Types Of Processing Options In The Custom Actions And What Is The Use?

      Answer :

      A) Synchronous: Windows Installer runs the custom action synchronously to the main installation. It waits for the custom action to complete successfully before continuing the main installation.

      b) Synchronous, ignore exit code: Windows Installer runs the custom action synchronously to the main installation. It waits for the custom action to complete before continuing the main installation; the action can be either success or fail.

      c) A synch, wait at end of sequence: Windows Installer runs the custom action simultaneously with the main installation. At the end it waits for the exit code from the custom action before continuing.

      d) A synch, no wait: Windows Installer runs the custom action simultaneously with the main installation. It doesn’t wait for completion of the custom action and doesn’t check the exit code also.

    49. Question 49. What Are The Types Of Scheduling Options In The Custom Actions And What Is The Use?

      Answer :

      1. Always Execute: This action execute in all sequences
      2. Run first time: This action execute only the first time Windows Installer encounters it.
      3. Run once per process:This action execute only one time either Execute sequence that should not run if the installation is running in silent mode.
      4. Run only if UI sequence was run: This action execute only if either Execute sequence is run following User Interface sequence.

    50. Question 50. What Is Launch Condition?

      Answer :

      Launch Condition is used to check system requirements on the destination computer.

    51. Question 51. What Is App Search?

      Answer :

      App Search action is used to search for existing versions of products (Files, Registry, INI, Directory & Component)

    52. Question 52. What Is Isolated Component, Why We Are Using And Its Types?

      Answer :

      It means that to prevent overwriting of previous versions of shared components, and ensures that other applications do not overwrite your version of shared components.

      a) Manifest file concept
      b) Local file concept

    53. Question 53. What Is The Use Of Msi Assembly Tables?

      Answer :

      It is used for the registration of .Net Assembly files

    54. Question 54. What Is The Latest Version Of Windows Installer?

      Answer :

      The latest version of Windows Installer is 4.5

    55. Question 55. What Is The Latest Version Of Wise Package Studio & Install Shield Admin Studio?

      Answer :

      Will change with time.

    56. Question 56. What Is Conflict Management?

      Answer :

      When two or more applications install the same system files (DLLs, .VBXs, and .OCXs), Windows registry, and other items. To detect, Conflict Management should be use and for resolve the software conflicts, Application Isolation concept should be use.

    57. Question 57. What Are The Types Of Deployment (software Distribution)?

      Answer :

      • Group policy (Active Directory)
      • Software Update Services (SUS)
      • Windows Update Web site
      • Systems Management service (SMS)

    58. Question 58. What Is Software Distribution?

      Answer :

      One of the more critical aspects to managing a Windows environment is the ability to deploy new applications, updates, upgrades & patches. Distributing new or updated software is called as Software Distribution.

    59. Question 59. What Is Group Policy (gpo) & How To Set It?

      Answer :

      Administrators use Group Policy to define options for managing, configuration of servers, desktops, and groups of users. It is used to set policies across a given site, domain, or range of organizational units. Use “gpedit.msc” in the run command to set the policy.

    60. Question 60. What Is Elevated User & How To Create It?

      Answer :

      If the user having the privileges of MSI features (Windows Installer) is called as Elevated User You can create through “gpedit.msc” in the run Command or registry keys HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsInstaller

      Type: DWORD Key: Always Install Elevated Value: 1

    61. Question 61. What Is Wrapper Msi?

      Answer :

      When an Executable is wrapped within an MSI then that msi is called wrapper msi.

    62. Question 62. What Is Lock Down Environment?

      Answer :

      Software restriction policies provide administrators with a Policy-driven mechanism to identify software running on computers in a domain, and control its ability to execute. This policy can be used to block malicious scripts, help lockdown a computer, or prevent unwanted applications from running.

    63. Question 63. What Is Intellimirror?

      Answer :

      Intelli Mirror management technologies are a set of powerful features for change and configuration management. It ensures that users’ data, software, and personal settings are available when they move from one computer to another, and persist when their computers are connected to the network.

    64. Question 64. What Is Active Directory?

      Answer :

      Deploying applications through the Active Directory is done through the use of group policies, and therefore applications are deployed either on a per user basis or on a per computer basis.

    65. Question 65. What Are The Other Tools Which Are Used During The Testing & Finding Solving The Issues In The Application Packaging?

      Answer :

      • Picture Taker
      • Windows Install Master
      • InstallRite
      • RegMon
      • FileMon
      • procmon
      • Process Explorer
      • CsDiff
      • Icon Extractor & Icon Builder
      • RegExtractor
      • WiLogUtl
      • WiseComReg

    66. Question 66. What Is Orca Tool & What Is The Purpose And Advantages?

      Answer :

      Microsoft utility to view, update, validate MSI & MST files.

    67. Question 67. What Is Package Code?

      Answer :

      The Package Code is a GUID identifying a particular Microsoft Windows Installer package. It associates an .MSI file.

    68. Question 68. What Is Product Code?

      Answer :

      The Product Code is a GUID identifying a particular Application or product.

    69. Question 69. What Are The Disadvantage/drawbacks Of Msi?

      Answer :

      Resiliency: Resiliency can be inconsistent with repackaged applications because the repackager utility may not fully understand the component dependencies or what the key paths of the application should be. Therefore, an application may be packaged into one large feature that gets entirely reinstalled if a component keypath is missing. If it were broken up into multiple smaller features it would enable a more manageable resiliency. COM/ActiveX

      Registration: Component Object Model (COM) and ActiveX controls may not be properly registered. Prior to Windows Installer, COM and ActiveX registration was a black box. Except for the exported functions DLLRegisterServer and DLLUnregister server, COM and ActiveX controls offered very few hints of their registration process. RegSvr32.exe was responsible for calling the previously mentioned functions and then the DLL was responsible for registering itself. There is no utility that can view a DLL, an OCX, or an EXE and figure out what goes on inside DllRegisterServer and DllUnregisterServer for that file. There are standard registry entries that most COM and ActiveX controls register, such as HKCRCLSID, HKCRProgID, and HKCRTypeLib. Information on COM registration may or may not get entered into the appropriate MSI tables by the repackager.

      Shortcuts: Shortcuts may not be created as Windows Installer descriptor shortcuts, which enable resiliency. Legacy setup shortcuts were .lnk files that pointed to an executable in most cases. Sometimes when the repackager runs, all it knows is that an .lnk file was copied to a directory. For example, a legacy Setup.exe installed a shortcut to C:WindowsProfilesUser1Desktop. The repackager would copy the .lnk file directly to the directory listed previously. Therefore, the repackager is not actually copying a Windows Installer shortcut, but rather it is copying a file without any resiliency capabilities included.

      Isolated Components: The only way to take advantage of isolated components is to author a new MSI package. Repackagers currently do not support this feature. Application Removal:When uninstalling a repackaged application, it is possible that the AllUsers profile.

    70. Question 70. What Is Advertisement And Command For Advertisement?

      Answer :

      It means that, the Availability of an application to users or others with out actually the full Installation. There are two types of Advertising.

      Assigning: An Application appears (shortcuts, files & registries) to a user or others, when an Application is “assigned”. When the user tries to open, it is installed upon demand.

      Publishing: No Entry points appear to a user or others, when an Application “published” to the group. It is activated only if the group Application activates the published Application i.e. Installation on Demand.

      Syntax

      Ø msiexec /j [{u|m}] package
      Ø msiexec {u|m} package /t TransformList
      Ø msiexec {u|m} package /g LanguageID

      Parameters

      Ø /j : Advertises a product.
      Ø u : Advertises to the current user.
      Ø m : Advertises to all users of the computer.
      Ø package : Specifies the Windows Installer package file.
      Ø /g LanguageID : Identifies the language.
      Ø /t TransformList : Applies transform to advertised package.

    71. Question 71. What Is Admin Install And Command For It?

      Answer :

      The Windows Installer can perform an administrative installation of an application or product to a network for use by a workgroup. An administrative installation installs a source image of the application onto the network that is similar to a source image on a CD-ROM. Users in a workgroup who have access to this administrative image can then install the product from this source. A user must first install the product from the network to run the application. The user can choose to run-from-source when he installs and the installer uses most of the product's file directly from the network. Administrators can run an administrative installation from the command line by using the /a command line option. The ADMIN action is the top-level action used to initiate an administrative installation. When this action is executed the installer calls the actions in the AdminExecuteSequence and AdminUISequence tables to perform the administrative installation.

      Syntax: Msiexec /a package

    72. Question 72. For Which Type Of Packages Admin Install Fail?

      Answer :

      Any MSI which installs files based on selection, be it from command line, System Search or selected options while installing.

    73. Question 73. What Is Transaction Processing?

      Answer :

      One or more operations processed together as a single indivisible whole called a transaction. All the constituent operations must succeed for the transaction to succeed, otherwise all the operations are rolled back to the original state.

      Windows Installer 4.5 includes support for installing multiple packages using transaction processing. The packages are chained together and processed as a single transaction. If one or more of the packages in the transaction cannot be installed successfully or if the end user cancels the installation, the Windows Installer initiates rollback for all of the packages to restore the system to its earlier state.

    74. Question 74. What Is Dll Cache Folder?

      Answer :

      It is the folder in which Microsoft Windows stores protected system files.

    75. Question 75. What Are The Addlocal And Addsource Properties?

      Answer :

      ADDLOCAL: It will install the components (file resources) associated with the feature locally on the client the package is installed on.

      ADDSOURCE: The files will be “installed” on the source meaning where the MSI is originally located. There will actually not be any installation of files into the folder but they must exists as “external uncompressed”.

    76. Question 76. Explain The Difference Between Property And Property?

      Answer :

      Property: Private Properties in MSI (Properties that cannot be changed during runtime).

      PROPERTY: Public Properties (Properties that can be changed during runtime).

    77. Question 77. Use Of Installevel Property?

      Answer :

      The INSTALLLEVEL property is the initial level at which features are selected “ON” for installation by default. A feature is installed only if the value in the Level field of the Feature table is less than or equal to the current INSTALLLEVEL value. The installation level for any installation is specified by the INSTALLLEVEL property, and can be an integral from 1 to 32,767.

    78. Question 78. What Is The Difference Between Repair And Self Healing?

      Answer :

      Self Heal and Repair are two different concepts in Windows Installer which people many times consider to be the same thing however there is difference in these two. 

      Self Heal is triggered by advertised shortcuts, or other advertising information in the package which eventually Repairs the application.

      When the application is launched by advertised shortcut, it checks for all the key paths of the Current Feature, if any of the key paths is missing it will launch Repair.

      Note that if there are multiple features then it will not check the missing key paths of the other features, but only the feature of which the advertised shortcut is launched.

      Repair of an MSI can be triggered by:

      • Repair button in Add/Remove programs

      • Giving the command line msiexec /f{other option} {MSI name}

      • Self Heal by advertised shortcut or other advertising information

      • Active setup

      Once the repair of the package is triggered, even with Self Heal, then the whole of the MSI is reinstalled. Then it does not see that only the feature which triggered the self heal should be repaired, but the whole MSI, by which I mean, all its features are reinstalled.

    79. Question 79. Difference Between Run, Run Once, Active Setup?

      Answer :

      Active Setup:

      It is used when your application requires installation of components such as files or registry keys on a per-user basis, but application has no advertised entry points or other triggers to initiate the installation process.

      Run:

      The Run key is processed after every logon, either by the Explorer shell, if it is present, or by First Boot Agent (FBA), if a custom shell, Command shell, or Task Manager Shell is used. If FBA processes this key, it does so after every logon, not during first boot as it normally would. Typically, this flag is used to load Systray applications, launch services in executables, hide autostart applications, or hide background processes

      Run Once:

      The RunOnce key is processed only once, by FBA, after Plug and Play device enumeration and DLL registration processing have completed. The values of this

      registry key are deleted from the registry after it is processed, so that it will not run again. Typically, this flag is used when a reboot is required, such as for a DLL or OCX registration, or for cleaning up a setup or an uninstall.

    80. Question 80. What Is The Logical Structure Of Package?

      Answer :

      A package describes the installation of a full product (Windows Installer does not handle dependencies between products) and is universally identified by a GUID. A product is made up of components, grouped into features.

      Components:

      A component is the minimal part of a product—each component is treated by Windows Installer as a unit: the install developer cannot, for example, use a

      condition to specify to install just part of a component. Components can contain files,groups of files, directories, COM components, registry keys, shortcuts, and other data. The end user does not directly interact with components.

      Components are identified globally by GUIDs, thus the same component can be shared among several features of the same package or multiple packages, ideally through the use of merge modules (although, for this to work correctly, different components should not share any sub-components).

      Key paths:

      A key path is a specific file, registry key, or ODBC data source that the package author specifies as critical for a given component. Because a file is the most common type of key path, the term key file is commonly used. A component can contain at most one key path; if a component has no explicit key path, the component's destination directory is taken to be the key path.

      When an MSI-based application is launched, Windows Installer checks the existence of these critical files or registry keys (that is, the key paths). If there is a mismatch between the current system state and the value specified in the MSI package (e.g., a key file is missing), then the related feature is re-installed. This process is also known as self-healing or self-repair. No two components should use the same key path.

      Features :

      A feature is a hierarchical group of components—a feature can contain any number of components and other features (a feature contained in another feature is called a "subfeature"). Most installation programs display a "custom setup" dialog box at run time, from which the end user can select which features to install or remove.

      The package author defines the product features. A word-processing program, for example, might provide features for the main program executable, the program's help files, and optional spelling checker and stationery modules.

    81. Question 81. Advantages Of Packaging (creating Msi Packages)?

      Answer :

      1. Customize Applications to suit the user needs.

      2. Simplify the Installation and Un-installation Procedures.

      3. Saves Time in both Installation and Un-installation.

      4. Once packaged, applications can be quickly installed on a range of desktops in multiple locations, saving administrative costs, simplifying the manage of
      licensing fees and minimizing support and repair expenditures.

      5. Saves Space of the product by doing apt modifications to applications.

      6. Has a great flexibility of obtaining the lost files through a phenomenon called Self Heal, this reduces the down time of application. If a critical file (a .DLL or
      .EXE file, for example) that is part of the distribution is corrupt or is deleted, the user can be prompted to repair the installation by presenting the original
      .MSI distribution. Additionally, if the installation media is available (for example, on a network share), the repair simply happens automatically.

      7. Can be advertised. So that on demand installation could take place.

      8. Upgrading of the application can be done with ease.

      9. Clean installation and Un-Installation is achieved by a process called Roll- Back.

      10. Simplifies management of new user set-up along with the revision and distribution of software repairs and new applications to existing users. Application recovery can also be improved.

      11. Helps eliminate uncontrolled software downloads and installation, enables applications to be safely removed and reduces non-business traffic on a
      corporate network.

      12. Using .MSI format, can automate software distribution process and ensure that the installation doesn’t break other applications that have already been
      installed.

      13. Application is installed via an OS service.

      14. State management is maintained. In the past, it’s been difficult to know whether an application is installed on a machine. You would have to query for

      a .DLL with a specific version number or determine whether an .EXE file with

      a specific name was present. Windows Installer provides an application programming interface (API) that lets programmers and administrators see
      whether a specific application is installed on a machine.

      15. Scriptable API. This whips together a VBScript to help us with the MSI file manipulations. The API to manipulate MSI files is so powerful that it can create, validate and update packages, trigger installs and uninstalls, examine the MSI repository data on computers, and perform some custom actions.

      16. Served installs. Because MSI files can be housed in a share point and delivered via a server, we can keep our installation files all in one place or move them around — closer to the users if necessary.

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