Antenna Interview Questions & Answers

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Antenna Interview Questions & Answers

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Antenna Interview Questions

Antenna Interview Questions
    1. Question 1. Define An Antenna?

      Answer :

      Antenna is a transition device or a transducer between a guided wave and a free space wave or vice-versa. Antenna is also said to be an impedance transforming device.

    2. Question 2. What Is Meant By Radiation Pattern?

      Answer :

      Radiation pattern is the relative distribution of radiated power as a function of distance in space .It is a graph which shows the variation in actual field strength of the EM wave at all points which are at equal distance from the antenna. The energy radiated in a particular direction by an antenna is measured in terms of FIELD STRENGTH. (E Volts/m)

    3. Question 3. Define Radiation Intensity?

      Answer :

      The power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle is called the radiation intensity U (watts per steradian or per square degree). The radiation intensity is independent of distance.

    4. Question 4. Define Beam Efficiency?

      Answer :

      The total beam area (WA) consists of the main beam area (WM) plus the minor lobe area (Wm). 

      Thus WA = WM+ Wm.

      The ratio of the main beam area to the total beam area is called beam efficiency.

      Beam efficiency (SM) = WM / WA.

    5. Question 5. Define Directivity?

      Answer :

      The directivity of an antenna is equal to the ratio of the maximum power density P (q,f)max to its average value over a sphere as observed in the far field of an antenna.

      D = P (q,f)max / P(q,f)av. Directivity from Pattern.

      D = 4p / WA. Directivity from beam area (WA).

    6. Question 6. What Are The Different Types Of Aperture?

      Answer :

      • Effective aperture.
      • Scattering aperture.
      • Loss aperture.
      • Collecting aperture.
      • Physical aperture.

    7. Question 7. Define Different Types Of Aperture?

      Answer :

      Effective aperture (Ae): It is the area over which the power is extracted from the incident wave and delivered to the load is called effective aperture. 

      Scattering aperture (As): It is the ratio of the reradiated power to the power density of the incident wave.

      Loss aperture (Ae): It is the area of the antenna which dissipates power as heat. 

      Collecting aperture (Ae): It is the addition of above three apertures.

      Physical aperture (Ap): This aperture is a measure of the physical size of the antenna.

    8. Question 8. Define Aperture Efficiency?

      Answer :

      The ratio of the effective aperture to the physical aperture is the aperture efficiency. i.e Aperture efficiency = hap = Ae / Ap (dimensionless).

    9. Question 9. What Is Meant By Effective Height?

      Answer :

      The effective height h of an antenna is the parameter related to the aperture. It may be defined as the ratio of the induced voltage to the incident field.i.e H= V / E.

    10. Question 10. What Are The Field Zones?

      Answer :

      The fields around an antenna may be divided into two principal regions.

      • Near field zone (Fresnel zone)
      • Far field zone (Fraunhofer zone)

    11. Question 11. What Is Meant By Polarization?

      Answer :

      The polarization of the radio wave can be defined by direction in which the electric vector E is aligned during the passage of atleast one full cycle.Also polarization can also be defined the physical orientation of the radiated electromagnetic waves in space. The polarization are three types. They are Elliptical polarization ,circular polarization and linear polarization.

    12. Question 12. What Is Meant By Front To Back Ratio?

      Answer :

      It is defined as the ratio of the power radiated in desired direction to the power radiated in the opposite direction. i.e FBR = Power radiated in desired direction / power radiated in the opposite direction.

    13. Question 13. Define Antenna Efficiency?

      Answer :

      The efficiency of an antenna is defined as the ratio of power radiated to the total input power supplied to the antenna. Antenna efficiency = Power radiated / Total input Power.

    14. Question 14. What Is Radiation Resistance ?

      Answer :

      The antenna is a radiating device in which power is radiated into space in the form of electromagnetic wave. W’ = I2 R Rr = W’/ I2 Where Rr is a fictitious resistance called called as radiation resistance.

    15. Question 15. What Is Meant By Antenna Beam Width?

      Answer :

      Antenna beamwidth is a measure of directivity of an antenna. Antenna beam width is an angular width in degrees, measured on the radiation pattern (major lobe) between points where the radiated power has fallen to half its maximum value. This is called as "beam width" between half power points or half power beam width.(HPBW).

    16. Question 16. What Is Meant By Reciprocity Theorem?

      Answer :

      If an e.m.f is applied to the terminals of an antenna no.1 and the current measured at the terminals of the another antenna no.2, then an equal current both in amplitude and phase will be obtained at the terminal of the antenna no.1 if the same emf is applied to the terminals of antenna no.2.

    17. Question 17. What Is Meant By Isotropic Radiator?

      Answer :

      A isotropic radiator is a fictitious radiator and is defined as a radiator which radiates fields uniformly in all directions. It is also called as isotropic source or omni directional radiator or simply unipole.

    18. Question 18. Define Gain?

      Answer :

      The ratio of maximum radiation intensity in given direction to the maximum radiation intensity from a reference antenna produced in the same direction with same input power. i.e Maximum radiation intensity from test antenna (G)= Maximum radiation intensity from the reference antenna with same input power.

    19. Question 19. Define Self Impedance?

      Answer :

      Self impedance of an antenna is defined as its input impedance with all other antennas are completely removed i.e away from it.

    20. Question 20. Define Mutual Impedance?

      Answer :

      The presence of near by antenna no.2 induces a current in the antenna no.1 indicates that presence of antenna no.2 changes the impedance of the antenna no.1. This effect is called mutual coupling and results in mutual impedance.

    21. Question 21. What Is Meant By Cross Field?

      Answer :

      Normally the electric field E is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. In some situation the electric field E is parallel to the wave propagation that condition is called Cross field. 

    22. Question 22. Define Axial Ratio?

      Answer :

      The ratio of the major to the minor axes of the polarization ellipse is called the Axial Ratio (AR). 

    23. Question 23. What Is Meant By Beam Area?

      Answer :

      The beam area or beam solid angle or WA of an antenna is given by the normalized power pattern over a sphere. 

      WA = ò ò4p Pn ( q,f ) dW

      Where dW = Sin q dq.df 

    24. Question 24. What Is Duality Of Antenna?

      Answer :

      It is defined as an antenna is a circuit device with a resistance and temperature on the one hand and the space device on the other with radiation patterns, beamangle, directivity gain and aperture.

    25. Question 25. State Poynting Theorem?

      Answer :

      It states that the vector product of electric field intensity vector E and the magnetic filed intensity vector H at any point is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point. The direction of power flow is perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetic field components.

    26. Question 26. What Is Point Source?

      Answer :

      It is the waves originate at a fictitious volume less emitter source at the center ‘O’ of the observation circle.

    27. Question 27. What Is Meant By Array?

      Answer :

      An antenna is a system of similar antennas oriented similarly to get greater directivity in a desired direction.

    28. Question 28. What Is Meant By Uniform Linear Array?

      Answer :

      An array is linear when the elements of the array are spaced equally along the straight line. If the elements are fed with currents of equal magnitude and having a uniform progressive phase shift along the line, then it is called uniform linear array.

    29. Question 29. What Are The Types Of Array?

      Answer :

      • Broad side array.
      • End fire array
      • Collinear array.
      • Parasitic array.

    30. Question 30. What Is Broad Side Array?

      Answer :

      Broad side array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is perpendicular to the array axis and also the plane containing the array element. 

    31. Question 31. Define End Fire Array?

      Answer :

      End fire array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is coincides with the array axis. 

      For end fire array δ = - β d 

      where β = 2Π / λ and d = distance between the elements.

    32. Question 32. What Is Collinear Array?

      Answer :

      In this array the antenna elements are arranged coaxially by mounting the elements end to end in straight line or stacking them one over the other with radiation pattern circular symmetry. 

      Eg. Omnidirectional antenna.

    33. Question 33. What Is Parasitic Array?

      Answer :

      In this array the elements are fed parasitically to reduce the problem of feed line. The power is given to one element from that other elements get by electro magnetic coupling.

      Eg. Yagi uda antenna.

    34. Question 34. What Is The Condition On Phase For The End Fire Array With Increased Directivity?

      Answer :

      When δ = - β d, produces maximum field in the direction φ = 0 but dies not give the maximum directivity. It has been shown by Hansen and woodyard that a large directivity is obtained by increasing the phase change between the sources so that δ = - (βd + π / n ).

      This condition will be referred to as the condition for increased directivity.

    35. Question 35. Define Array Factor?

      Answer :

      The normalized value of the total field is given by,

      E = ( 1 / n) ( sin (n Ψ / 2) / sin ( Ψ / 2) )

      The field is given by the expression E will be referred to as array factor.

    36. Question 36. Define Beam Width Of Major Lobe?

      Answer :

      It is defined the angle between the first nulls (or) it is defined as twice the angle between the first null and the major lobe maximum direction.

    37. Question 37. List Out The Expression Of Beam Width For Broad Side Array And End Fire Array?

      Answer :

      For broad side array the expression for beam width between the first nulls is given by,

      BWFN = ( ( + / -) 2 λ / n d )

      For End fire array the expression for beam width between the first nulls is given by,

      BWFN = ( ( + / -) 2 ( 2 λ / n d ) )1/2

    38. Question 38. Differentiate Broad Side And End Fire Array?

      Answer :

      • In Broad side array antennas are fed in phase δ = 0, where as in end fire arrays the antenna elements are fed out of phase i.e. δ = - β d.
      • In broad side array the maximum radiation is perpendicular to the direction of array axis, where as in case of end fire array the maximum radiation is directed along the array axis.

    39. Question 39. What Is The Need For The Binomial Array?

      Answer :

      The need for a binomial array is

      • In uniform linear array as the array length is increased to increase the directivity, the secondary lobes also occurs.
      • For certain applications, it is highly desirable that secondary lobes should be eliminated completely or reduced to minimum desirable level compared to main lobes.

    40. Question 40. Define Power Pattern?

      Answer :

      Graphical representation of the radial component of the poynting vector Sr at a constant radius as a function of angle is called power density pattern or power pattern.

    41. Question 41. What Is Meant By Similar Point Sources?

      Answer :

      Whenever the variation of the amplitude and the phase of the field with respect to the absolute angle for any two sources are same then they are called similar point sources.

      The maximum amplitudes of the individual sources may be unequal.

    42. Question 42. What Is Meant By Identical Point Sources?

      Answer :

      Similar point sources with equal maximum amplitudes are called identical point sources.

    43. Question 43. What Is The Principle Of The Pattern Multiplication?

      Answer :

      The total field pattern of an array of non isotropic but similar sources is the product of the

      • Individual source pattern and
      • The array pattern of isotropic point sources each located at the phase center of the individual
      • source having the same amplitude and phase.

      While the total phase pattern is the sum of the phase patterns of the individual source pattern and array pattern.

    44. Question 44. What Is The Advantage Of Pattern Multiplication?

      Answer :

      • Useful tool in designing antenna.
      • It approximates the pattern of a complicated array without making lengthy computations.

    45. Question 45. What Is Tapering Of Arrays?

      Answer :

      Tapering of array is a technique used for reduction of unwanted side lobes. The amplitude of currents in the linear array source is non-uniform; hence the central source radiates more energy than the ends. Tapering is done from center to end.

    46. Question 46. What Is A Binomial Array?

      Answer :

      It is an array in which the amplitudes of the antenna elements in the array are arranged according to the coefficients of the binomial series.

    47. Question 47. What Are The Advantages Of Binomial Array?

      Answer :

      Advantage:

      • No minor lobes.

      Disadvantages:

      • Increased beam width.
      • Maintaining the large ratio of current amplitude in large arrays is difficult.

    48. Question 48. What Is The Difference Between Isotropic And Non-isotropic Source?

      Answer :

      • Isotropic source radiates energy in all directions but non-isotropic source radiates energy only in some desired directions.
      • Isotropic source is not physically realizable but non-isotropic source is physically realizable.

    49. Question 49. Define Side Lobe Ratio?

      Answer :

      Side Lobe Ratio is defined as the ratio of power density in the principal or main lobe to the power density of the longest minor lobe.

    50. Question 50. List The Arrays Used For Array Tapering?

      Answer :

      • Binomial Array:Tapering follows the coefficient of binomial series.
      • Dolph Tchebycheff Array: Tapering follows the coefficient of Tchebycheff polynomial.

    51. Question 51. What Do You Understand By Retarded Current?

      Answer :

      Since,the short electric dipole is so short, the current which is flowing through the dipole is assumed to be constant throughout its length. The effect of this current is not felt instantaneous at a distance point only after an interval equal to the time required for the wave to propagate over the distance r is called the retardation time.

      The retarded current [I]=Io exp( jw' ( t - r / c ) )

      Where w'r / c is the phase retardation.

    52. Question 52. Define Induction Field?

      Answer :

      The induction field will predominate at points close to the current element, where the distance from the center of the dipole to the particular point is less. This field is more effective in the vicinity of the current element only. It represents the energy stored in the magnetic field surrounding the current element or conductor. This field is also known as near field.

    53. Question 53. Define Radiation Field?

      Answer :

      The radiation field will be produced at a larger distance from the the current element, where the distance from the centre of the dipole to the particular point is very large. It is also called as distant field or far field.

    54. Question 54. At What Distance From The Dipole Is The Induction Field Equal To The Radiation Field?

      Answer :

      As the distance from the current element or the short dipole increases, both induction and radiation fields emerge and start decreasing. However, a distance reaches from the conductor at which both the induction and radiation field becomes equal and the particular distance depends upon the wavelength. The two fields will thus have equal amplitude at that particular distance. This distance is given by r = 0.159 λ.

    55. Question 55. Define Radiation Resistance?

      Answer :

      It is defined as the fictitious resistance which when inserted in series with the antenna will consume the same amount of power as it is actually radiated. The antenna appears to the transmission line as a resistive component and this is known as the radiation resistance.

    56. Question 56. Give The Expression For The Effective Aperture Of A Short Dipole?

      Answer :

      The effective aperture of a short dipole is given by

      Ae = 0.119 λ2.

    57. Question 57. What Is A Dipole Antenna?

      Answer :

      A dipole antenna may be defined as a symmetrical antenna in which the two ends are at equal potential relative to the midpoint.

    58. Question 58. What Is A Half Wave Dipole?

      Answer :

      A half wave antenna is the fundamental radio antenna of metal rod or tubing or thin wire which has a physical length of half wavelength in free space at the frequency of operation.

    59. Question 59. Give The Expression For The Effective Aperture Of A Half Wave Dipole?

      Answer :

      The effective aperture of a half wave dipole is given by

      Ae = 0.13 λ2.

    60. Question 60. What Is The Radiation Resistance Of A Half Wave Dipole?

      Answer :

      The radiation resistance of a half wave dipole is given by

      Rr = 73 ohm.

    61. Question 61. What Is A Loop Antenna?

      Answer :

      A loop antenna is a radiating coil of any convenient cross-section of one or more turns carrying radio frequency current. It may assume any shape (e.g. rectangular, square, triangular and hexagonal).

    62. Question 62. Give An Expression Of Radiation Resistance Of A Small Loop?

      Answer :

      Radiation resistance of a small loop is given by

      Rr = 31,200 ( A / λ2 )2

    63. Question 63. How To Increase The Radiation Resistance Of A Loop Antenna?

      Answer :

      The radiation resistance of a loop antenna can be increased by:

      • Increasing the number of turns.
      • Inserting a ferrite core of very high permeability with loop antenna’ s circumference which will rise the magnetic field intensity called ferrite loop.

    64. Question 64. What Are The Types Of Loop Antennas?

      Answer :

      Loop antennas are classified into:

      • Electrically Small (Circumference < λ / 10 )
      • Electrically Small (Dimension comparable to λ )

    65. Question 65. What Are Electrically Small Loop Antennas?

      Answer :

      Electrically Small loop antennas is one in which the overall length of the loop is less than one-tenth of the wavelength. Electrically Small loop antennas have small radiation resistances that are usually smaller than their loop resistances. They are very poor radiators and seldom employed for transmission in radio communication.

    66. Question 66. List The Applications Of Helical Antenna?

      Answer :

      The applications of helical antenna are:

      • It became the workhouse of space communications for telephone, television and data, being employed both on satellites and at ground stations.
      • Many satellites including weather satellites, data relay satellites all have helical antennas.
      • It is on many other probes of planets and comets, including moon and mars, being used alone, in arrays or as feeds for parabolic reflectors, its circular polarization and high gain and simplicity making it effective for space application.

    67. Question 67. Define Sky Wave?

      Answer :

      Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection in the ionosphere is called sky wave.

    68. Question 68. Define Tropospheric Wave?

      Answer :

      Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection from the troposphere region is called Tropospheric wave (i.e. 10 Km from Earth surface).

    69. Question 69. Define Ground Wave?

      Answer :

      Waves propagated over other paths near the earth surface is called ground wave propagation.

    70. Question 70. What Are The Type Of Ground Wave?

      Answer :

      Ground wave classified into two types.

      • Space wave.
      • Surface wave.

    71. Question 71. What Is Meant By Space Wave?

      Answer :

      It is made up of direct wave and ground reflected wave. Also includes the portion of energy received as a result of diffraction around the earth surface and the reflection from the upper atmosphere.

    72. Question 72. What Is Meant By Surface Wave?

      Answer :

      Wave that is guided along the earth’ s surface like an EM wave is guided by a transmission is called surface wave. Attenuation of this wave is directly affected by the constant of earth along which it travels.

    73. Question 73. What Is Meant By Fading?

      Answer :

      Fading is variation of signal strength occur on line of sight paths as a result of the atmospheric conditions. It can not be predicted properly.

    74. Question 74. What Are The Type Of Fading?

      Answer :

      Two types:

      1. Inverse fading.
      2. Multi path fading.

    75. Question 75. What Is Inverse And Multi Path Fading?

      Answer :

      Inverse bending may transform line of sight path into an obstructed one.
      Multi path fading is caused by interference between the direct and ground reflected waves as well as interference between two are more paths in the atmosphere.

    76. Question 76. What Is Meant By Diversity Reception?

      Answer :

      To minimize the fading and to avoid the multi path interference the technique used are diversity reception. It is obtained by three ways:

      • Space diversity reception.
      • Frequency diversity reception.
      • Polarization diversity.

    77. Question 77. Define Space Diversity Reception?

      Answer :

      This method exploits the fact that signals received at different locations do not fade together. It requires antennas spaced at least 100λ apart are preferred and the antenna which high signal strength at the moment dominates.

    78. Question 78. Define Frequency Diversity Reception?

      Answer :

      This method takes advantage of the fact that signals of slightly different frequencies do not fade synchronously. This fact is utilized to minimize fading in radio telegraph circuits.

    79. Question 79. Define Polarization Diversity Reception?

      Answer :

      It is used in normally in microwave links, and it is found that signal transmitted over the same path in two polarization have independent fading patterns. In broadband dish antenna system, Polarization diversity combined with frequency diversity reception achieve excellent results.

    80. Question 80. What Is Meant By Faraday's Rotation?

      Answer :

      Due to the earth’ s magnetic fields, the ionosheric medium becomes anisotropic and the incident plane wave entering the ionosphere will split into ordinary and extra ordinary waves/modes.

      When these modes re-emerge from the ionosphere they recombine into a single plane wave again. Finally the plane of polarization will usually have changed, this phenomenon is known as Faraday's rotation.

    81. Question 81. What Are The Factors That Affect The Propagation Of Radio Waves?

      Answer :

      • Curvature of earth.
      • Earth’ s magnetic field.
      • Frequency of the signal.
      • Plane earth reflection.

    82. Question 82. Define Gyro Frequency?

      Answer :

      Frequency whose period is equal to the period of an electron in its orbit under the influence of the earths magnetic flux density B.

    83. Question 83. Define Critical Frequency?

      Answer :

      For any layer, the highest frequency that will be reflected back for vertical incidence is

      fcr = 9 √Nmax

    84. Question 84. Define Magneto-ions Splitting?

      Answer :

      The phenomenon of splitting the wave into two different components (ordinary and extra-ordinary) by the earths magnetic field is called Magneto-Ions Splitting.

    85. Question 85. Define Luhf?

      Answer :

      The lowest useful HF for a given distance and transmitter power is defined as the lowest frequency that will give satisfactory reception for that distance and power.

      It depends on:

      • The effective radiated power
      • Absorption character of ionosphere for the paths between transmitter and receiver.
      • The required field strength which in turn depends upon the radio noise at the receiving location and type of service involved.

    86. Question 86. Define Refractive Index?

      Answer :

      It is defined as n = c / Vp

      where n = √εr

    87. Question 87. Define Maximum Usable Frequency?

      Answer :

      The maximum Frequency that can be reflected back for a given distance of transmission is called the maximum usable frequency (MUF) for that distance.

      MUF = fcr sec φi

    88. Question 88. Define Skip Distance?

      Answer :

      The distance with in which a signal of given frequency fails to be reflected back is the skip distance for that frequency. The higher the frequency the greater the skip distance.

    89. Question 89. Define Optimum Frequency?

      Answer :

      Optimum frequency for transmitting between any two points is therefore selected as some frequency lying between about 50 and 85 percent of the predictedmaximum usable frequency between those points.

    90. Question 90. What Is Antenna Matching?

      Answer :

      When the antenna is receiving with a load resistance matched to the antenna radiation resistance, maximum power is transferred to the load and the power is also re-radiated from the dipole. This is called antenna matching.

    91. Question 91. What Is A Short Dipole?

      Answer :

      A short dipole is one in which the field is oscillating because of the oscillating voltage and current. It is called so, because the length of the dipole is short and the current is almost constant throughtout the entire length of the dipole.

    92. Question 92. How Are Fields Created From Short Dipole / Oscillating Dipole?

      Answer :

      The dipole has two equal charges of opposite sign oscillating up and down in a harmonic motion. The charges will move towards each other and electric filed lines were created. When the charges meet at the midpoint, the field lines cut each other and new field are created.This process is spontaneous and so more filed are created around the antenna. This is how radiations are obtained from a short dipole.

    93. Question 93. What Are Antenna Field Zones?

      Answer :

      The regions containing the radiations that are present around the antenna are called field zones. The fields around an antenna ay be divided into two principal regions.

      • Near field zone (Fresnel zone).
      • Far field zone (Fraunhofer zone).

    94. Question 94. What Is Self Impedance And Mutual Impedance?

      Answer :

      Self impedance of an antenna is defined as its input impedance with all other antennas are completely removed i.e away from it.

      The presence of near by antenna no.2 induces a current in the antenna no.1 indicates that presence of antenna no.2 changes the impedance of the antenna no.1. This effect is called mutual coupling and results in mutual impedance.

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