Waterfall - Agile Testing

One of the earliest approaches to software development is the waterfall approach.A paper published by Winston W.Royce in the 1970s[5] described a sequential

software development model containing a number of phases, each of which must be completed before the next begins. Figure shows the classic interpretation of the phases in a waterfall project.From a quality perspective,the waterfall approach has been often criticized because testing begins late in the project;as a consequence,a high degree of project risk(that is,failure of the software to meet customer expectations, to be delivered with acceptable levels of defects,or to perform adequately) is retained until late into the project.With the resultant reworking and retesting caused by the late detection of defects,waterfall projects were also likely to incur additional effort,miss their delivery dates,and exceed their budgets.

The waterfall approach has also been criticized for its lack of responsiveness to customer requests for changes to the system being developed. Historically, it was typical for all of the requirements to be captured at the start of the project and to be set in stone throughout the rest of the development. A frequent result of this approach was that by the time the software had been delivered (sometimes months or even years later),it no longer matched the needs of the customer, which had almost certainly changed by then.Because of increasing dissatisfaction with the rigid structure of waterfall projects, other solutions were investigated that would be more flexible in terms of addressing changing requirements.

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