Scrum is a project management method for agile software development and testing that enables the creation of self-organizing teams by encouraging co-location of all team members (including customer representatives) combined with effective verbal communication among all team members and across all disciplines that are involved in the project.
A key principle of Scrum is the recognition that during a project, the customers are likely to change their minds frequently about what they want and need(often called requirements churn), and that such customer needs cannot be addressed successfully in a traditional predictive or planned manner. As such, Scrum adopts an empirical approach – accepting that the problem cannot be fully understood or defined, focusing instead on maximizing the team’s ability to deliver quickly and respond to emerging requirements.
In terms of the genesis of Scrum, as early as 1986 Takeuchi and Nonaka had observed that projects employing small,cross-functional teams were typically the most successful, and they coined the phrase “rugby approach” to describe the phenomenon. The first explicit reference to Scrum2 in the context of software development came in 1990 in work by DeGrace and Stahl.
In the early 1990s, work on agile methods by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland, at their respective companies Advanced Development Methods and Easel Corporation, led Sutherland and Schwaber to jointly present a paper at the 1996 International Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and Application describing Scrum .Schwaber and Sutherland collaborated during the following years to further develop and document their experiences and industry best practices into what is now known as Scrum.
In 2001,Ken Schwaber teamed up with Mike Beedle to write up the method in Agile Software Development with SCRUM .
A major factor in the success of Scrum projects is the drive for efficient communications, with techniques such as daily short focused stand-up meetings combined with explicit team roles(e.g., Pig and Chicken;see Appendix D) to manage who may contribute to the meetings and in what manner.
Although Scrum was originally intended to be used for the management of software development projects, it can be employed in running software maintenance teams or as a program management approach: Scrum of Scrums.
Scrum: a play in the ball game rugby in which two groups of players mass together around the ball and, with their heads down,struggle to gain possession of the ball. Typically held following an illegal forward pass.
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