"Every human should have the idea of taking care of the environment, of nature, of water. So using too much or wasting water should have some kind of feeling or sense of concern. Some sort of responsibility and with that, sense of discipline"-The Dalai Lama
Water is part of a larger ecological system. Realizing the importance and scarcity attached to the fresh water, it has to be treated as an essential environment for sustaining all life forms. Water conservation is a term used to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for various purposes like cleaning, manufacturing, and agricultural irrigation. Water conservation is also defined as Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use or waste as well as the preservation of water quality or A reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures or Improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. Water conservation process is a technological action which is designed to reduce water loss or wastage. Water efficiency is a tool of water conservation that results in more efficient water use and thus reduces water demand.
Conservation of water is a great step to save the environment and to secure the future generations. Water is a precious natural resource on the earth. Abundant natural resources will be the greatest asset which we give to our next generation. If each one of us makes efforts to save water today, it will save us later. Water conservation is the most effective and environment friendly method to fight against global warming. Water conservation is what that can reduce the scarcity of water. It aims to improve the efficiency of water usage, and reduce losses and waste.
Average annual reduction in specific water consumption is as follows:
The major objectives of water conservation include:
- To sustain the natural water resources to the future generations
- Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management
- The changing habits of water consumption help to conserve the natural water environments for local wildlife and migrating water flow, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructure
Water conservation is a regular practice and need to be adopted by the people, companies, and governments to reduce water usage. The goal of water conservation may be to address an ongoing water shortage, or to make lifestyle modifications to be more environmental friendly. In the late 20th century, water is emerged as a major issue due to the decreasing natural resources, where many people lack access to safe drinking water, and the issue of water conservation began to attract a great deal of attention. Methods to save water or conserve water:
Rainwater Harvesting: Rainwater harvesting is the process of gathering and collecting the rainwater from the rooftop. It is the most effective and simple way to conserve the water. The harvested rain water can be useful for domestic and agricultural purposes. At present three methods of rain water harvesting are available such as Catchment, Conveyance and storage.
Traditional Water Bodies: There are many traditional water bodies which have been in disuse for the longer time. These bodies can be reused as the recharging points.
Ponds: Steps should be taken to avoid dumping of sewage into the village ponds. Efforts need to be made to deepen these ponds with the dragline machines. Garbage and other wastes should not be dumped into the ponds.
Watershed management plans: Watershed management plans through extensive soil conservation, catchment-area treatment, preservation of forests and increasing the forest cover and the construction of check-dams should be promoted. Efforts shall be to conserve the water in the catchment.
Below tips can be useful in saving water resources:
- Avoid leakage of water from the taps
- Turn the tap off when not in use especially when you brush your teeth or wash clothes
- Rainwater harvesting is the best method to conserve water
- The water supply should be limited in those areas which enjoy the unlimited water supply
- Check the leakage of water in the toilets. Also get the hidden water leaks checked
- Educate people in the rural areas to save the water
- Promote water conservation through media and wall posters
- Never throw the water unnecessarily on roads which can be used for gardening and cleaning
- Avoid unnecessary flushing of the toilets. Dispose off the tissues, cigarettes and other waste into the bin instead of toilets
- Use minimum amount of water to bath
- Water Waste restrictions
- Improvement in the water distribution system
- Water your lawn only when it is needed
- Use a broom instead of hose to clean the sidewalks or to wash the car
- Capture the water that is leaking and repair the leaking pipes as soon as possible
- You can use washing machine to wash clothes that do not consume much water
- Do not leave the tap running while washing the dishes in the kitchen
- Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of water
Water Conservation gives various benefits like:
- Saving water leads to saving water bills and everybody should follow save water save life
- Reduction in interior water use cuts waste water flows, especially overflowing of gutters which contaminates the environment
- Environment benefits include eco system and habitat protection
- Water conservation helps in improving the quality of your drinking water
It also reduces greenhouse effect and absorbs radiation.
Wastage of water resources causes below disadvantages like:
1. Shoreline Pollution Waste water is pumped into an ocean or pond by using pumping techniques. In places where waste water is not treated, it is released into the ocean using pipes. But it is not being discharged in a proper way and sometimes it is discharged when the tide is coming in. This means incoming sewage and the swimming water of beaches mix, creating a nasty combination for those who are out to enjoy a walk or a swim. There are some other health related bad effects associated with untreated waste water.
2. Damage to Aquatic Life Untreated waste water can damage the aquatic life. The toxins in sewage get accumulated in the bodies of marine animals. When a fish eats the accumulated toxins and in turn when whales, seals and people eat fish, the toxins move up the food chain into the bodies of larger aquatic animals and human beings.
3. Removal of a Potential Resource We are not aware that some of the compounds of waste water are reusable. Gray water is quite reusable, since it contains minor amounts of contamination like hair, soap and residue from vegetables. In some places, storm water also mixes with waste water. Rain water flows from roads directly into storm sewers. With minimal waste treatment techniques, gray water and storm water can be reused. Mixing them with sewage and pumping them untreated into oceans or lakes means that gray water and storm water are not used in areas where they are needed for agriculture.
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