-Crime is a logical extension of the sort of behavior that is often considered perfectly respectable in legitimate business - ROBERT RICE, The Business of Crime
Over the last few years most of the countries of the world has experienced a remarkable increase in crime rate. There is no particular reason for any disorder for criminal activities. Sometimes society, cultural factors, different family systems, political influences and law enforcement are responsible for criminal activities of an individual. Crime rate is growing in India. Crime may be found in various forms. Organized crime includes drug trafficking, shooting, money laundering, extortion, and murder for hire, fraud, human trafficking. Many criminal activities lead to political violence, religiously motivated violence, terrorism, and abduction. The other form of crimes includes homicide, robbery, assault etc. Corruption is a significant problem which is faced by India.
As per Wikipedia facts on crime rates shows below data:
- Location wise, the highest crime rate was reported in Pondicherry (447.7%) which is 2.7 times the national crime rate of 167.7%.
- Kerala reported the next highest crime rate at 312.5% among states.
- Kolkata (71.0%) and Madurai (206.2%) were the only two mega cities which reported less crime rate than their domain states West Bengal (79.0%) and Tamil Nadu (227.6%).
- Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore have accounted for 16.2%, 9.5% and 8.1% respectively.
- Indore reported the highest crime rate (769.1%) among the mega cities in India followed by Bhopal (719.5%) and Jaipur (597.1%).
- Jammu & Kashmir (33.7%), Manipur (33.0%), Assam (30.4%) and Daman and Diu and Pondicherry (29.4%) reported higher violent crime rate compared to 18.4% at national level
- Uttar Pradesh recorded the highest violent crimes accounting for 12.1% of total violent crimes in India (24,851 out of 2,05,656) followed by Bihar with 11.8% (24,271 out of 2,05,6556).
- Among 35 mega cities, Delhi reported 31.2% (533 out of 1,706) of total rape cases.
- Madhya Pradesh has reported the highest number of rape cases (2,900) accounting for 15.0% of total such cases reported in the country.
- Uttar Pradesh reported 10% (5,480 out of 32,481) of total murder cases in the country and 18.4% (4,997 out of 27,230) total attempts to murder cases.
Causes for increasing crime rates: Poverty and unemployment are the general causes of increasing crime rates. But these causes may not applicable to all crimes. Here we are presenting some root causes of growing crime rates in India:
1. Lack of proper education system
Present education system making students to earn their livelihood. But other aspects of education like personality development, moral values and self discovery are ignored.
2. Ineffective law and order systems
Ineffective law and order system are responsible for growing crime rate in India. This is not applicable in all circumstances, but some extent it is the responsible factor.
3. Alcoholism and Drugs
Alcohol and drug consumption affects a persons mind and destroys his judgment and rational thinking, causing an individual to lose control over his inhibitions and act on impulse. It is the major cause of growing crime rates in India.
Television is a powerful weapon which attracts children and youth very easily. It creates an attractive impression on children and youth. Many of researches proven that, people who watches violence stories on television exhibit aggressive behavior. This is even reflected on their future behavior as they exhibit aggressive behavior, when they grow in to their adolescence. It has been observed that acts like flirting, occasional misbehavior, alcohol indulgence, and occasional rowdyism was widespread in children.
5. Lack of parents care
Changing life styles created more needs which demanding more income.So, both the parents are happened to working. Due to their busy schedules they are unable to focus on their children. One more reason was that our political and corporate role models involved in either in corporate frauds, market manipulations, flouting land acquisition norms, land scams or have connections with the underworld dons.
Poverty is often leads to crime. Unemployment is another cause which contributes to crime through looking ways to earn money by any means possible.
Cyber crime is a buzz word in today's world. It is defined as a criminal activity committed on internet. This is a broad term that describes everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks that cause electronic commerce sites to lose money". As per National Research Council, "The modern thief can steal more with a computer than with a gun. Tomorrow's terrorist may be able to do more damage with a keyboard than with a bomb".
Cyber crime can be of three types:
1. Cybercrimes against persons
2. Cybercrimes against property
3. Cybercrimes against government Cyber crimes are committed against persons include various crimes like harassing a person by sending an email with objecting content.
Some more activities of this section include trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of obscene material including pornography and indecent exposure, constitutes one of the most important Cybercrimes known today. The second category of Cyber-crime is that of Cyber-crime against all forms of property. These crimes include computer destruction someones property, transmission of harmful programes. Cyber harassment is a different kind of Cyber-crime. Various kinds of harassments like sexual, racial, religious and other cyber harassments may happen through cyber harassment. The third category of Cyber-crimes happened against Government. The growth of internet has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by individuals and groups to threaten the international governments as also to terrorize the citizens of a country. This crime manifests itself into terrorism when an individual "cracks" into a government or military maintained website. The Parliament of India passed a law called Cyber-law which is well known as the Information Technology Act in 2000. It provides legal powers to the Police to enter and search, without any warrant, any public place for the purpose of stealing cyber criminals and preventing cyber-crime. Also, the Indian Cyber-law talks of the arrest of any person who is about to commit a cyber-crime.
The below activities come under this act:
-Damage to computer source code
- Publishing electronic information
- Breach of confidentiality
- Publishing false digital signatures The Act also indicates that cyber crimes can only be investigated by an official holding no less a rank than that of Dy. Superintendent of Police (Dy.SP).
The Union Cabinet has approved the introduction of the Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill, 2012. Lawyers Collective welcomes certain changes proposed in the Bill like widening the definition of sexual assault to include non-penile penetration and inclusion of offences like acid attacks, for which people have been campaigning for decades. However, there are certain major concerns with the Bill in its present form. However, Lawyers Collective will continue to engage with the Bill and do a further more detailed critique of the same.
Preventive measures to reduce the crime rate:
- Reduce alcohol and drug abuse. 51% of crimes are committed under the influence of alcohol and other drugs.
- Improve assessment and interventions for youth.
- People who had education and training, and who are in work, are less likely to offend.
-Strengthen rehabilitation and re-integration services to prepare and support people to live law-abiding lives.
- Wider Government Initiatives.
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